Buy a Nursing essay from

Left your Nursing Assignment to the last minute? Let a qualified expert do your Nursing essay for you and deliver it before your deadline!

Buy Nursing essay Papers
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic Rhinitis.Ray kept on rubbing at his nose for 2 days now. This was noticed by his mother, who then asked if Ray is feeling okay. Ray complained that his nose feels stuffy, and he keeps on sneezing. Ray’s mother brought him to his pediatrician and after several tests, Ray was found out to have allergic rhinitis.


Although allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common disease, the impact on daily life cannot be underestimated.
  • Allergic rhinitis in children is most often caused by sensitization to animal dander, house dust, pollens, and molds.
  • Pollen allergy seldom appears before 4 or 5 years of age.
  • Sensitization to outdoor allergens can occur in allergic rhinitis in children older than 2 years; however, sensitization to outdoor allergens is more common in children older than 4-6 years.


Understanding the function of the nose is important in order to understand allergic rhinitis (AR).
  • The purpose of the nose is to filter, humidify, and regulate the temperature of inspired air; this is accomplished on a large surface area spread over 3 turbinates in each nostril.
  • A triad of physical elements (ie, a thin layer of mucus, cilia, and vibrissae [hairs] that trap particles in the air) accomplishes temperature regulation.
  • The amount of blood flow to each nostril regulates the size of the turbinates and affects airflow resistance.
  • The nature of the filtered particles can affect the nose.
  • Irritants (eg, cigarette smoke, cold air) cause short-term rhinitis; however, allergens cause a cascade of events that can lead to more significant, prolonged inflammatory reactions.
  • In short, rhinitis results from a local defense mechanism in the nasal airways that attempts to prevent irritants and allergens from entering the lungs.

Statistics and Incidences

Allergic rhinitis (AR) has no race predilection; however, individuals from nonwhite backgrounds seek out medical attention less often than whites.
  • AR has no sex predilection.
  • Clinically significant sensitization to indoor allergens may occur in children younger than 2 years.
  • AR-like symptoms (runny nose, blocked nose, or sneezing apart from a cold) may begin as early as age 18 months.
  • In a report from the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS), 9.1% of the 1859 toddlers in the study cohort reported allergic rhinitis-like symptoms at age 18 months.


AR is caused by an immunoglobulin E (IgE)–mediated reaction to various allergens in the nasal mucosa.
  • Allergens. The most common allergens include dust mites, pet danders, cockroaches, molds, and pollens.

Clinical Manifestations

Symptoms of rhinitis consist of:
  • Rhinorrhea. This condition is commonly called “runny nose”.
  • Nasal congestion. The child may complain of stuffiness in the nose.
  • Postnasal drainage. This occurs when excessive mucus is produced by the nasal mucosa.
  • Repetitive sneezing. Sneezing repeatedly is a sign that there is irritation.
  • Itchiness. There is itching of the palate, ears, nose, or eyes.
  • Allergic salute. The allergic salute is when the child pushes his or her nose upward and backward to relieve itching and open the air passages in the nose.

Assessment and Diagnostic Findings

No studies are needed in allergic rhinitis (AR) if the patient has a straightforward history. When the history is confusing, various studies are helpful, including the following:
  • Skin-prick testing. This test is highly sensitive and specific for aeroallergens; however, a false positive reaction can occur without corresponding clinical features, especially when skin mast cells are easily activated by pressure or other physical stimuli.
  • Serum allergen-specific IgE testing. The main limitations are that patients may be sensitive on a molecular level before IgE response is clinically seen on standard skin testing; this may lead to positive results on laboratory tests that are not triggering clinical symptoms.
  • Nasal smear. Eosinophils usually indicate allergy.
  • CBC count with differential. A CBC count may reveal an increased number of eosinophils; an eosinophil count within the reference range does not exclude AR; however, an elevated eosinophil count is suggestive of the diagnosis.

Medical Management

Treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) can be divided into 3 categories: avoidance of allergens or environmental controls, medications, and allergen-specific immunotherapy (sublingual or allergy shots).
  • Environment control. Use of environmental controls is not adequately explored in most patients; for many patients, the removal of the trigger can have a dramatic effect; difficulty arises when the trigger needs to be identified and eliminated; eliminating the trigger may be simple if removal of a feather pillow or blanket is involved; however, it can be very difficult if a family pet needs to be removed.

Pharmacologic Management

Many groups of medications are used for allergic rhinitis (AR), including antihistamines, corticosteroids, decongestants, saline, sodium cromolyn, and leukotriene receptor antagonists.
  • 2nd generation antihistamines. Antihistamines are classified in several ways, including sedating and nonsedating, newer and older, and first- and second-generation antihistamines (most widely accepted classification); first-generation antihistamines are primarily over-the-counter OTC) and are included in many combination products for cough, colds, and allergies.
  • Intranasal antihistamines. These agents are an alternative to oral antihistamines to treat allergic rhinitis; currently, azelastine and olopatadine are the only agents available in the United States.
  • Intranasal corticosteroids. This class of medications is most effective; intranasal corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory agents shown to decrease allergic rhinitis symptoms in more than 90% of patients.
  • Intranasal antihistamine and corticosteroids. Combination products are emerging on the market for patients who require an intranasal antihistamine and corticosteroids.
  • Intranasal decongestants. Decongestants are effective for short-term symptom control; they decrease nasal discharge and congestion and are available without a prescription.
  • Leukotriene receptor agonists. Montelukast has been approved as monotherapy for allergic rhinitis; it has been shown to be most effective in patients in whom significant congestion is a primary complaint.
  • Allergen immunotherapy. Immunotherapy with daily sublingual (SL) tablets may be able to replace weekly injections in some individuals, depending on the offending allergens; depending on the particular SL tablet, therapy must be initiated at least 3-4 months before the allergen season that is being treated.
  • Intranasal mast cell stabilizers. These are effective therapy for AR in approximately 70-80% of patients; they produce mast cell stabilization and antiallergic effects by inhibiting mast cell degranulation.

Nursing Management

Nursing management of the child with allergic rhinitis includes:

Nursing Assessment

Assessment of the child include:
  • History. Nurses should try to identify seasonal variations, provocative elements in the environment, and the timing of events that lead to symptoms; for example, if the patient only has issues during the week, this may lead to investigating the environment of the child’s classroom or daycare for allergens like pets or molds.

Nursing Diagnoses

Based on the assessment data, the major nursing diagnoses are:
  • Ineffective airway clearance related to obstruction or presence of thickened secretions.
  • Disturbed sleep pattern related to obstruction of the nose.
  • Self-concept disturbance related to the condition.
  • Anxiety related to lack of knowledge about the disease and medical action procedure.

Nursing Care Planning and Goals

The major goals for a child with allergic rhinitis are:
  • Child will no longer breathe through the mouth.
  • Airway will be back to normal, especially the nose.
  • Child will sleep 6-8 hours a day.
  • Child and parents will describe the level of anxiety and coping patterns.
  • Child and parents will know and understand about the disease and treatment.

Nursing Interventions

Nursing interventions for the child include:
  • Identification of the allergen. Identification and elimination is easiest for dust mite allergens; pollen is more difficult to avoid because daily activities must be altered to do so; an easy intervention is to keep the windows closed, which is easily accomplished in air-conditioned homes and must be done throughout the year.
  • Use of nasal sprays. Teach the patient and parents on how to use nasal sprays by blowing the nose first then administering the medication.
  • Encourage thorough cleaning of the house. Encourage a routine cleaning of the house, furniture, and equipment which may house dust and other pollens.
  • Encourage medication compliance. Administer pharmacologic treatment as ordered by the physician.


Goals are met as evidenced by:
  • Child no longer breathes through the mouth.
  • Airway is back to normal, especially the nose.
  • Child sleeps 6-8 hours a day.
  • Child and parents describe the level of anxiety and coping patterns.
  • Child and parents know and understand about the disease and treatment.

Documentation Guidelines

Documentation in a child with allergic rhinitis includes the following:
  • Environmental assessment.
  • Cultural and religious beliefs, and expectations.
  • Plan of care.
  • Teaching plan.
  • Responses to interventions, teaching, and actions performed.
  • Long-term care.
  • Modifications to the plan of care.
  • Attainment or progress toward desired outcomes.

Practice Quiz: Allergic Rhinitis

Here’s a 5-item quiz for allergic rhinitis study guide:

Exam Mode

In Exam Mode: All questions are shown but the results, answers, and rationales (if any) will only be given after you’ve finished the quiz.

Practice Quiz: Allergic Rhinitis

Congratulations - you have completed Practice Quiz: Allergic Rhinitis. You scored %%SCORE%% out of %%TOTAL%%. Your performance has been rated as %%RATING%%
Your answers are highlighted below.

Practice Mode

Practice Mode: This is an interactive version of the Text Mode. All questions are given in a single page and correct answers, rationales or explanations (if any) are immediately shown after you have selected an answer. No time limit for this exam.

Practice Quiz: Allergic Rhinitis

Congratulations - you have completed Practice Quiz: Allergic Rhinitis. You scored %%SCORE%% out of %%TOTAL%%. Your performance has been rated as %%RATING%%
Your answers are highlighted below.

Text Mode

1. For Mikael who is diagnosed of having allergic rhinitis, which nursing intervention is the most appropriate? A. Encouraging the client to use nasal saline sprays. B. Discouraging nose blowing before administering nasal medication. C. Advising use of bronchodilator regularly, even if having no symptoms. D. Instructing the client to carry epinephrine with him at all times. 1. Answer: A. Encouraging the client to use nasal saline sprays.
  • Option A: For the client with allergic rhinitis, saline nasal sprays may be helpful in soothing mucous membranes, softening crusted secretions, and removing irritants.
  • Option B: To achieve maximum relief, the client should blow the nose before administering any medication into the nasal cavity.
  • Option C: The client diagnosed with asthma, not allergic rhinitis, may use bronchodilators.
  • Option D: Carrying epinephrine would be appropriate for the client with an allergy to insect stings or certain foods such as shellfish.
2. Which intervention should Nurse John Joe discuss with Elena who has an allergic disorder and is requesting information for allergy symptom control? (Select all that apply.) A. Instructing the client to refrain from using air conditioning or humidifiers in the house. B. Instructing the client to use curtains instead of pull shades over windows. C. Instructing the client to cover the mattress with a hypoallergenic cover. D. Instructing the client to wear a mask when cleaning. E. Instructing the client to avoid using sprays, powders, and perfumes. F. Instructing the client to change detergents frequently. 2. Answer: C, D, E.
  • Option C: Using hypoallergenic covers and cosmetics will help reduce the chance of an allergic attack.
  • Option D: Wearing mask while cleaning will help decrease the amount of dust entering the lungs.
  • Option E: Avoiding sprays, powders, and perfumes will help decrease the chance of an allergic attack.
  • Options A, B, and F: The client should use air conditioning and humidifiers; drapes, curtains, blinds, and carpets should be removed; the client should not change detergents or soaps.
3. For Aubrey Anne who has allergies, which client statement indicates that the nurse’s teaching about her condition has be successful? A. “I don’t need to wear any type of mask when I’m cleaning my house.” B. “I should stay in the house when there’s a low pollen count outside.” C. “I should avoid any types of spray, powders, and perfumes.” D. “I can wear any type of clothing that I want to as long as I wash it first.” 3. Answer: C. “I should avoid any types of spray, powders, and perfumes.”
  • Option C: The goal of teaching a client with allergies focuses on avoidance of the offending agent, and other triggers.
  • Options A and B: The client also should wear a mask when cleaning the house or working in the yard and stay inside when the pollen counts are high, not low.
  • Option D: Any fabrics that cause itching should be avoided.
4. After the first injection of an immunotherapy program, the nurse notices a large, red wheal on the client’s arm, coughing, and expiratory wheezing. Which intervention should the nurse implement first? A. Notifying the health care provider immediately. B. Administering I.M. epinephrine per protocol. C. Beginning oxygen by way of nasal cannula. D. Starting an I.V. line for medication administration. 4. Answer: B. Administering I.M. epinephrine per protocol.
  • Option B: Immediately on noticing the client’s sign and symptoms, the nurse would determine that the client is experiencing anaphylaxis to the injection; the first action is to give 0.2 to 0.5 ml of 1:1,000 epinephrine I.M.
  • Options A, C, and D: Notifying the health care provider, beginning oxygen administration, and starting an I.V. line follow after the initial injection of epinephrine is administered.
5. Which condition would Nurse Jade suspect when a client complains of a runny nose, itching and burning eyes, and sneezing since visiting a friend who had a cat in the home? A. Anaphylaxis. B. Bronchitis. C. Allergic rhinitis. D. Asthma. 5. Answer: C. Allergic rhinitis.
  • Option C: The client most likely is suffering from allergic rhinitis, an allergic reaction to inhaled airborne allergens; in this case, the friend’s cat triggered the client’s symptoms.
  • Option A: Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening allergic reaction marked by rapidly progressive urticaria and respiratory distress.
  • Options B and D: Bronchitis and asthma produce symptoms in the lower respiratory tract, such as expiratory wheezing and chest tightness.

See Also

Related topics to this study guide:

Further Reading

Recommended resources and books for pediatric nursing:
  1. PedsNotes: Nurse's Clinical Pocket Guide (Nurse's Clinical Pocket Guides)
  2. Pediatric Nursing Made Incredibly Easy
  3. Wong's Essentials of Pediatric Nursing
  4. Pediatric Nursing: The Critical Components of Nursing Care


Ask our team

Want to contact us directly? No problem. We are always here for you.

Frequently Asked Buy a Nursing essay Questions

See all
Is your service confidential?

When you place an order with our company, we ask you to provide us with such personal information as your name, phone number, and email address. We need this data to keep you updated on the important things related to your order or account, and never share it with any third parties. We also don’t use your contact details for spamming you.

Please note that our support team may contact you using only the phone number(s) stated on our website, such +1 (248) 599-2414 and/+44 (151) 528-2636. In order to secure our mutual cooperation, please do not communicate with those who introduce themselves as essaypapers support staff and reach you from different phone numbers.

Also, remember that we never ask you to provide your credit card information via phone conversations. You should enter this information only on PayPal or Gate2Shop billing forms when making an online payment on our website. The essaypapers support administrator will send a confirmation letter to your personal order page when your payment is received.

We also use a secure encrypted connection and do not store your private data if we do not need it anymore. For more details about how we ensure your confidentiality, check our Privacy Policy, which completely complies with the GDPR.

We offer original model papers that can be used legally in a number of ways if properly referenced:

  • As a source of arguments or ideas for your own research
  • As a source of additional understanding of the subject
  • Direct citing

Nonetheless, check your college’s/university’s policies, including their definition of plagiarism and paraphrasing before using our services. Make conscious decisions in regards to your education.

How do I order a paper from essaypapers?

We take care not only of your academic success, but also of your experience with us. That’s why we have made the process of placing your order as easy and fast as possible—usually, it takes no more than 2-3 minutes.

Let’s have a closer look at the simple steps you need to go through for submitting your order:

Fill in the order form.

Be sure to include specific instructions regarding your paper and to upload any of the required materials. If you have any questions while specifying your paper’s information, just click on the info sign at the end of every field name and you will see a detailed tip on what exact information is required.

Proceed with the payment.

After you are through with the order form, you will need to make a payment via a preferable system. Right after that, you will be automatically provided with your personal order page where you can track your order’s progress, provide additional requirements, and send messages to your writer or support manager.

A personal writer is assigned to your order.

Our qualified staff will choose the most suitable writer whose skills and experience match your field of study and paper’s details. In case the writer must have any particular software or literature in order to get the Nursing Assignment done, please do not forget to mention this in your initial instructions.

Your paper is completed and delivered to your personal order page.

When the writer finishes your paper, it is delivered to your personal order page as a PDF document, available for preview only. You will be able to download an editable MS Word version of the order right after you click the “Approve” button in the “Files” tab of your personal order page. If any changes are to be applied to the paper, you are always welcome to request a free revision with a new deadline for the writer (be sure to check more information about this in our revision policy).

You can check how easy the process is by going to the order page and submitting your paper details right now.

Is there a money-back guarantee? If yes, how can I receive a refund?

You can get more details about possible types and terms of refunds on our official money-back guarantee page.

How will I receive a completed paper?

You will get the first version of your paper in a non-editable PDF format within the deadline. You are welcome to check it and inform us if any changes are needed. If everything is okay, and no amendments are necessary, you can approve the order and download the .doc file. If there are any issues you want to change, you can apply for a free revision and the writer will amend the paper according to your instructions.

If there happen to be any problems with downloading your paper, please contact our support team.

What if I’m not satisfied with my order?

If your paper needs some changes, you can apply for a free revision that is available for 7 days after your paper is approved. To use this option, you have a “Revision” button on your personal page.

After the 7-day period, you cannot apply for a free revision, though you still can use a paid revision option. The price of such a revision will differ depending on the number of amendments needed to be done. Please contact our support team to find out how we can help you with the amendments to your paper.

If you think our writer didn’t manage to follow your instructions, and as a result, your paper is of poor quality, please contact us and we will do our best to solve the problem.

If the revisions didn’t give the desired result, you can apply for a refund. Our dispute department will process your inquiry to find out what kind of refund we can give you. To find out more, please visit our money-back guarantee page.

How do I request a refund?

You can’t apply for a refund on certain stages of your order, like when the order is not finished by the writer yet.

When the paper is delivered, the “Refund” button on your personal order page becomes clickable.

On the relevant tab of your personal order page, you will also be able to choose the type of refund you’re demanding and the reason why you applying for it. As soon as you do that, our dispute department will start working on your inquiry. All kinds of refunds concerning the quality or the lateness of your paper should be requested within 14 days from the time the paper was delivered, as in 14 days your paper, will be automatically approved.

Your inquiry should be submitted by clicking the “Refund” button on your personal order page only.

Order your essay today and save 15% with the discount code NURSINGHELP