Buy a Nursing essay from nursingessays.us

Left your Nursing Assignment to the last minute? Let a qualified expert do your Nursing essay for you and deliver it before your deadline!

9.8
Buy Nursing essay Papers
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Anthelmintics

Anthelmintics are drugs used to treat infections caused by susceptible invading worms.

Anthelmintics: Generic and Brand Names

Here is a table of commonly encountered anthelmintics, their generic names, and brand names:
Classification Generic Name Brand Name
Anthelmintics albendazole Albenza
ivermectin Stromectol
mebendazole Vermox
praziquantel Biltricide
pyrantel Antiminth, Pin-Rid

Disease Spotlight: Helminthic infections

  • These are infections in the GI tract or other tissues due to worm infestations. It affects about 1 billion people which make it the most common of all diseases.
  • Infestations are very common in tropical areas. Travelers can contract a helminthic infection and bring it home, where the worms can infect other individuals.
  • Most common infectious helminths are nematodes (roundworms) and platyhelminthes (flatworms) which invade the intestines and the tissues.

Therapeutic Action

The desired and beneficial action of anthelmintics is:
  • They act on metabolic pathways present in the invading worm but are absent or significantly different in human host.

Indications

Anthelmintics are indicated for the following medical conditions:
  • Albendazole for the treatment of active lesions caused by pork tapeworm and cystic disease of the liver, lungs, and peritoneum caused by dog tapeworm.
  • Ivermectin is used for the treatment of threadworm disease or strongyloidiasis and onchocerciasis or river blindness.
  • Mebendazole is for the treatment of diseases caused by pinworms, roundworms, whipworms, and hookworms.
  • Praziquantel is for treatment of a wide number of schistosomes or flukes.
  • Pyrantel is for treatment caused by pinworms and roundworms.
 Here are some important aspects to remember for indication anthelmintics in different age groups: Children
  • Culture of the suspected worm is important before beginning any drug therapy.
  • Albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel are more toxic so they are avoided in children. Instead, a chewable preparation of mebendazole is usually given.
  • Children may develop serious GI effects during therapy so nurse’s focus must be on nutritional status and hydration.
Adults
  • This age group might be repulsed by the idea that they have a worm infestation, and they may be reluctant to discuss the needed lifestyle adjustments and treatment plans.
  • Pregnant and nursing women should not use these drugs unless the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. Potential risks must be communicated to the patients.
Older adults
  • Older patients are more susceptible to GI and CNS adverse effects of Anthelmintics therapy particularly those with hepatic and renal dysfunctions.

Pharmacokinetics

Here are the characteristic interactions of anthelmintics and the body in terms of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion:
Route Onset Peak Duration
Oral Slow 2-4 h N/A
T1/2: 2.5-9 h Metabolism: liver Excretion: colon (feces)

Contraindications and Cautions

The following are contraindications and cautions for the use of anthelmintics:
  • Known allergy to the drug. Prevent hypersensitivity reactions.
  • Lactation. Drug can enter breast milk.
  • Renal and hepatic disease. Interfere with drug metabolism and excretion.
  • Severe diarrhea and malnourishment. Can alter effects of drug on the intestine and any preexisting helminths.
  • Pyrantel has not been established as safe for use in children younger than 2 years.

Adverse Effects

Use of anthelmintics may result to these adverse effects:
  • GI: abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, pain
  • CNS: headache, dizziness,
  • Immunologic: fever, shaking, chills, malaise, rash, pruritus, loss of hair
  • Albendazole is associated with severe bone marrow depression and renal failure.

Interactions

The following are drug-drug interactions involved in the use of anthelmintics:
  • Dexamethasone, praziquantel, cimetidine. Increased toxic effects of albendazole

Nursing Considerations

Here are important nursing considerations when administering anthelmintics:

Nursing Assessment

These are the important things the nurse should include in conducting assessment, history taking, and examination:
  • Assess for the mentioned cautions and contraindications (e.g. known allergies, hepatorenal dysfunction, pregnancy and lactation, etc.) to prevent any untoward complications.
  • Perform a thorough physical assessment (other medications taken, reflexes and muscle strength, skin color, temperature, texture, etc.) to establish baseline data before drug therapy begins, to determine effectiveness of therapy, and to evaluate for occurrence of any adverse effects associated with drug therapy.
  • Assess the patient’s liver function, including liver function tests to determine appropriateness of therapy and to monitor for toxicity.
  • Obtain a culture of stool for ova and parasites to determine the infecting worm and establish appropriate treatment.
  • Assess the abdomen to evaluate for any changes from baseline related to the infection, identify possible adverse effects, and monitor for improvement.

Nursing Diagnoses

Here are some of the nursing diagnoses that can be formulated in the use of these drugs for therapy:

Implementation with Rationale

These are vital nursing interventions done in patients who are taking anthelmintics:
  • Arrange for appropriate culture and sensitivity tests before beginning therapy to ensure proper drug for susceptible Plasmodium species.
  • Administer the complete course of the drug to get the full beneficial effects.
  • Monitor hepatic function and perform ophthalmological examination before and periodically during treatment to ensure early detection and prompt intervention with cessation of drug if signs of failure or deteriorating vision occur.
  • Provide comfort and safety measures if CNS effects occur (e.g. side rails and assistance with ambulation if dizziness and weakness are present) to prevent patient injury. Provide oral hygiene and ready access to bathroom facilities as needed to cope with GI effects.
  • Educate client on drug therapy to promote understanding and compliance.

Evaluation

Here are aspects of care that should be evaluated to determine effectiveness of drug therapy:
  • Monitor patient response to therapy (resolution of helminth infestation and improvement in signs and symptoms).
  • Monitor for adverse effects (e.g. orientation and affect, nutritional state, skin color and lesions, hepatic function, and reports of abdominal discomfort and pain, etc).
  • Evaluate patient understanding on drug therapy by asking patient to name the drug, its indication, and adverse effects to watch for.
  • Monitor patient compliance to drug therapy.

Practice Quiz: Anthelmintics

Here are some practice questions for this study guide:

Exam Mode

In Exam Mode: All questions are shown but the results, answers, and rationales (if any) will only be given after you’ve finished the quiz.

Practice Mode

Practice Mode: This is an interactive version of the Text Mode. All questions are given in a single page and correct answers, rationales or explanations (if any) are immediately shown after you have selected an answer. No time limit for this exam.

Practice Quiz: Anthelmintics

Start
Congratulations - you have completed Practice Quiz: Anthelmintics. You scored %%SCORE%% out of %%TOTAL%%. Your performance has been rated as %%RATING%%
Your answers are highlighted below.

Text Mode

1. Which drug is indicated for threadworm infections? A. albendazole B. ivermectin C. pyrantel D. mebendazole 1. Answer: B. ivermectin.
  • Option A is for tapeworms
  • C for pinworms and roundworms, and
  • D for whipworms and hookworms as well as pinworms and roundworms.
2. A nurse caring for a pediatric patient on anthelmintic therapy should be alarmed of the following adverse drug reactions, except: A. fever and chills B. weight loss of 2kg in 3 days C. difficulty in feeding D. unusually sleepy child 2. Answer. A. fever and chills. It might be associated with drug action on worms. Options B,C, and D are manifestations of GI and CNS drug adverse effects. 3. Which of the following physical assessment findings will alert the nurse for anthelmintic drug toxicity in elderly patients? A. muscle strength +2 B. blunt liver edge upon palpation C. 10 bowel sounds in one minute on right lower quadrant (RLQ) upon auscultation D. non-palpable spleen 3. Answer: B. blunt liver edge upon palpation. This may indicate hepatomegaly or ongoing inflammatory process which is adversely caused by anthelmintics. All other options are normal PE findings. 4. A patient was receiving dexamethasone was prescribed with albendazole. Which of the following is the most appropriate nursing action? A. Ignore the order and refuse to administer the drug. B. Increase the dose of albendazole and notify doctor. C. Discuss with the doctor for possible dose adjustment or change of medication. D. Decrease the dose of albendazole and notify doctor. 4. Answer: C. Discuss with the doctor for possible adjustment or change of medication. This combination greatly increases the risk of renal failure. 5. All of the laboratory tests listed below should be arranged by the nurse for patients receiving anthelmintics, except: A. serum electrolytes B. T3 and T4 levels C. prothrombin time D. stool culture 5. Answer: B. T3 and T4 levels.
  • This is not related to monitoring of client’s condition while under therapy.
  • Serum electrolytes is important as client may have fluid losses as side effect of the drug.
  • Prothrombin time is part of liver function test.
  • Stool culture is important for establishing appropriate treatment.

References and Sources

References and sources for this pharmacology guide for Anthelmintics Agents:
  • Karch, A. M., & Karch. (2011). Focus on nursing pharmacology. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. [Link]
  • Katzung, B. G. (2017). Basic and clinical pharmacology. McGraw-Hill Education.
  • Lehne, R. A., Moore, L. A., Crosby, L. J., & Hamilton, D. B. (2004). Pharmacology for nursing care.
  • Smeltzer, S. C., & Bare, B. G. (1992). Brunner & Suddarth’s textbook of medical-surgical nursing. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott.

See Also

Here are other nursing pharmacology study guides: Gastrointestinal System Drugs Respiratory System Drugs Endocrine System Drugs Autonomic Nervous System Drugs Immune System Drugs Chemotherapeutic Agents Reproductive System Drugs Nervous System Drugs Cardiovascular System Drugs

Further Reading and External Links

Recommended resources and reference books. Disclosure: Includes Amazon affiliate links.
  1. Focus on Nursing Pharmacology - Easy to follow guide for Pharmacology
  2. NCLEX-RN Drug Guide: 300 Medications You Need to Know for the Exam - Great if you're reviewing for the NCLEX
  3. Nursing 2017 Drug Handbook (Nursing Drug Handbook) - Reliable nursing drug handbook!
  4. Lehne's Pharmacology for Nursing Care - Provides key information on commonly used drugs in nursing
  5. Pharmacology and the Nursing Process - Learn how to administer drugs correctly and safely!
  6. Pharm Phlash Cards!: Pharmacology Flash Cards - Flash Cards for Nursing Pharmacology

Questions?

Ask our team

Want to contact us directly? No problem. We are always here for you.

Frequently Asked Buy a Nursing essay Questions

See all
Is your service confidential?

When you place an order with our company, we ask you to provide us with such personal information as your name, phone number, and email address. We need this data to keep you updated on the important things related to your order or account, and never share it with any third parties. We also don’t use your contact details for spamming you.

Please note that our support team may contact you using only the phone number(s) stated on our website, such +1 (248) 599-2414 and/+44 (151) 528-2636. In order to secure our mutual cooperation, please do not communicate with those who introduce themselves as essaypapers support staff and reach you from different phone numbers.

Also, remember that we never ask you to provide your credit card information via phone conversations. You should enter this information only on PayPal or Gate2Shop billing forms when making an online payment on our website. The essaypapers support administrator will send a confirmation letter to your personal order page when your payment is received.

We also use a secure encrypted connection and do not store your private data if we do not need it anymore. For more details about how we ensure your confidentiality, check our Privacy Policy, which completely complies with the GDPR.

We offer original model papers that can be used legally in a number of ways if properly referenced:

  • As a source of arguments or ideas for your own research
  • As a source of additional understanding of the subject
  • Direct citing

Nonetheless, check your college’s/university’s policies, including their definition of plagiarism and paraphrasing before using our services. Make conscious decisions in regards to your education.

How do I order a paper from essaypapers?

We take care not only of your academic success, but also of your experience with us. That’s why we have made the process of placing your order as easy and fast as possible—usually, it takes no more than 2-3 minutes.

Let’s have a closer look at the simple steps you need to go through for submitting your order:

Fill in the order form.

Be sure to include specific instructions regarding your paper and to upload any of the required materials. If you have any questions while specifying your paper’s information, just click on the info sign at the end of every field name and you will see a detailed tip on what exact information is required.

Proceed with the payment.

After you are through with the order form, you will need to make a payment via a preferable system. Right after that, you will be automatically provided with your personal order page where you can track your order’s progress, provide additional requirements, and send messages to your writer or support manager.

A personal writer is assigned to your order.

Our qualified staff will choose the most suitable writer whose skills and experience match your field of study and paper’s details. In case the writer must have any particular software or literature in order to get the Nursing Assignment done, please do not forget to mention this in your initial instructions.

Your paper is completed and delivered to your personal order page.

When the writer finishes your paper, it is delivered to your personal order page as a PDF document, available for preview only. You will be able to download an editable MS Word version of the order right after you click the “Approve” button in the “Files” tab of your personal order page. If any changes are to be applied to the paper, you are always welcome to request a free revision with a new deadline for the writer (be sure to check more information about this in our revision policy).

You can check how easy the process is by going to the order page and submitting your paper details right now.

Is there a money-back guarantee? If yes, how can I receive a refund?

You can get more details about possible types and terms of refunds on our official money-back guarantee page.

How will I receive a completed paper?

You will get the first version of your paper in a non-editable PDF format within the deadline. You are welcome to check it and inform us if any changes are needed. If everything is okay, and no amendments are necessary, you can approve the order and download the .doc file. If there are any issues you want to change, you can apply for a free revision and the writer will amend the paper according to your instructions.

If there happen to be any problems with downloading your paper, please contact our support team.

What if I’m not satisfied with my order?

If your paper needs some changes, you can apply for a free revision that is available for 7 days after your paper is approved. To use this option, you have a “Revision” button on your personal page.

After the 7-day period, you cannot apply for a free revision, though you still can use a paid revision option. The price of such a revision will differ depending on the number of amendments needed to be done. Please contact our support team to find out how we can help you with the amendments to your paper.

If you think our writer didn’t manage to follow your instructions, and as a result, your paper is of poor quality, please contact us and we will do our best to solve the problem.

If the revisions didn’t give the desired result, you can apply for a refund. Our dispute department will process your inquiry to find out what kind of refund we can give you. To find out more, please visit our money-back guarantee page.

How do I request a refund?

You can’t apply for a refund on certain stages of your order, like when the order is not finished by the writer yet.

When the paper is delivered, the “Refund” button on your personal order page becomes clickable.

On the relevant tab of your personal order page, you will also be able to choose the type of refund you’re demanding and the reason why you applying for it. As soon as you do that, our dispute department will start working on your inquiry. All kinds of refunds concerning the quality or the lateness of your paper should be requested within 14 days from the time the paper was delivered, as in 14 days your paper, will be automatically approved.

Your inquiry should be submitted by clicking the “Refund” button on your personal order page only.

Order your essay today and save 15% with the discount code NURSINGHELP