Arterial Blood Gases (ABG) Interpretation

Notes

Description
  • Blood gases is a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide is in your blood. It also determines the acidity (pH) of your blood.
Normal Arterial Blood Gas Values
  • pH 7.35-7.45
  • PaCO2 35-45 mm Hg
  • PaO2 75-100 mm Hg
  • HCO3 22-26 mEq/L
  • O2 Saturation 95-99%
  • BE +/- 1
 pH  PaCO2  HCO3  Causes  Intervention
Respiratory Acidosis
Not releasing enough CO2, too much carbonic acid in body,
Hypoventilation (asphyxia, respiratory depression, CNS depression)
Administer O2, provide hydration, HOB up, suction if needed.
 Acute  < 7.35  > 45  Normal
 Partly Compensated  < 7.35  > 45  > 26
 Compensated  Normal  > 45  > 26
Respiratory Alkalosis  Releasing too much CO2, Hyperventilation, Anxiety Calm anxious person, breath slowly, monitor ABG’s and electrolyte levels
 Acute  > 7.45  < 35  Normal
 Partly Compensated  > 7.45  < 35  < 22
 Compensated  Normal  < 35  < 22
Metabolic Acidosis Causes are severe diarrhea, starvation, shock, diabetic ketoacidosis, renal failure, salicylate overdose Initiate IV fluid replacementas ordered, assess for signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, alkalosis, monitor ABG’s & urine pH
 Acute  < 7.35  Normal  < 22
 Partly Compensated  < 7.35  < 35  < 22
 Compensated  Normal  < 35  < 22
Metabolic Alkalosis Causes are severe vomiting, diuretic therapy, potassium deficit, excess gastric suctioning , overdose of an alkaline substance, hypercalcemia Initiate parenteral fluids as ordered, assess hepatic function, monitor ABG’s, urine, pH, and BUN
 Acute  > 7.45  Normal  > 26
 Partly Compensated  > 7.45  > 45  > 26
 Compensated  Normal  > 45  > 26

Exam

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Question 1
pH = 7.48, CO2 = 19, HCO3 = 14
A
NORMAL
B
RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
C
COMPENSATED METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
D
PARTLY COMPENSATED RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS
Question 2
pH = 7.35, CO2 = 42, HCO3 = 23
A
PARTLY COMPENSATED METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
B
NORMAL
C
COMBINED ACIDOSIS
D
COMBINED ALKALOSIS
Question 3
pH = 7.21, CO2 = 60, HCO3 = 24
A
RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
B
COMPENSATED RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
C
COMPENSATED RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS
D
COMPENSATED METABOLIC ALKALOSIS
Question 4
pH = 6.96, CO2 = 71, HCO3 = 16
A
COMBINED ACIDOSIS
B
METABOLIC ALKALOSIS
C
NORMAL
D
COMPENSATED ACIDOSIS
Question 5
pH = 7.75, CO2 = 29, HCO3 = 40
A
COMBINED ALKALOSIS
B
COMBINED ACIDOSIS
C
COMPENSATED METABOLIC ALKALOSIS
D
COMPENSATED RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
Question 6
pH = 7.33, CO2 = 66, HCO3 = 35
A
PARTLY COMPENSATED RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
B
METABOLIC ALKALOSIS
C
COMPENSATED RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
D
METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
Question 7
pH = 7.16, CO2 = 82, HCO3 = 29
A
METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
B
PARTLY COMPENSATED METABOLIC ALKALOSIS
C
RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS
D
PARTLY COMPENSATED RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
Question 8
pH = 6.68, CO2 = 85, HCO3 = 10
A
COMBINED ALKALOSIS
B
METABOLIC AND RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
C
COMBINED ACIDOSIS
D
COMPENSATED RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS
Question 9
pH = 7.56, CO2 = 28, HCO3 = 25
A
RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS
B
NORMAL
C
METABOLIC ALKALOSIS
D
COMPENSATED METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
Question 10
pH = 7.50, CO2 = 9, HCO3 = 7
A
METABOLIC ALKALOSIS
B
RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS
C
PARTLY COMPENSATED METABOLIC ALKALOSIS
D
PARTLY COMPENSATED RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS
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