Buy a Nursing essay from

Left your Nursing Assignment to the last minute? Let a qualified expert do your Nursing essay for you and deliver it before your deadline!

Buy Nursing essay Papers
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -


Jean just got home from her gardening class. She has noticed that every time she finishes her class, she keeps on coughing and coughing. She also feels that her chest tightens and she has trouble breathing. Today, she almost could not breathe that she hurriedly drove to the nearest emergency room. The ER physician diagnosed her with asthma.


Asthma affects people in their different stages in life, yet it can be avoided and treated. asthma-pathophysiology
  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes airway hyperresponsiveness, mucosal edema, and mucus production.
  • Inflammation ultimately leads to recurrent episodes of asthma symptoms.
  • Patients with asthma may experience symptom-free periods alternating with acute exacerbations that last from minutes to hours or days.
  • Asthma, the most common chronic disease of childhood, can begin at any age.


The underlying pathophysiology in asthma is reversible and diffuse airway inflammation that leads to airway narrowing.
  • Activation. When the mast cells are activated, it releases several chemicals called mediators.
  • Perpetuation.These chemicals perpetuate the inflammatory response, causing increased blood flow, vasoconstriction,, fluid leak from the vasculature, attraction of white blood cells to the area, and bronchoconstriction.
  • Bronchoconstriction. Acute bronchoconstriction due to allergens results from a release of mediators from mast cells that directly contract the airway.
  • Progression. As asthma becomes more persistent, the inflammation progresses and other factors may be involved in the airflow limitation.
Schematic Diagram [scribd id=136228783 key=key-ba99bnqc7zmpz8kbzpx mode=scroll]

Statistics and Epidemiology

Asthma is considered as the most common chronic disease of childhood, and is a disruptive disease that affects school and work attendance.
  • Asthma affects more than 22 million people in the United States.
  • Asthma accounts for more than 497, 000 hospitalizations annually.
  • The total economic cost of asthma exceeds $27.6 billion.


Despite increased knowledge on the pathology of asthma and the development of improved medications and management plans, the death rate from the disease continues to rise. Here are some of the factors that influence the development of asthma.
  • Allergy. Allergy is the strongest predisposing factor for asthma.
  • Chronic exposure to airway irritants. Irritants can be seasonal (grass, tree, and weed pollens) or perennial (mold, dust, roaches, animal dander).
  • Exercise. Too much exercise can also cause asthma.
  • Stress/ Emotional upset. This can trigger constriction of the airway leading to asthma.
  • Medications. Certain medications can trigger asthma.

Clinical Manifestations

The signs and symptoms of asthma can be easily identified, so once the following symptoms are observed, a visit to the physician is necessary.
  • Most common symptoms of asthma are cough (with or without mucus production), dyspnea, and wheezing (first on expiration, then possibly during inspiration as well).
  • Cough. There are instances that cough is the only symptom.
  • Dyspnea. General tightness may occur which leads to dyspnea.
  • Wheezing. There may be wheezing, first on expiration, and then possibly during inspiration as well.
  • Asthma attacks frequently occur at night or in the early morning.
  • An asthma exacerbation is frequently preceded by increasing symptoms over days, but it may begin abruptly.
  • Expiration requires effort and becomes prolonged.
  • As exacerbation progresses, central cyanosis secondary to severe hypoxia may occur.
  • Additional symptoms, such as diaphoresis, tachycardia, and a widened pulse pressure, may occur.
  • Exercise-induced asthma: maximal symptoms during exercise, absence of nocturnal symptoms, and sometimes only a description of a “choking” sensation during exercise.
  • A severe, continuous reaction, status asthmaticus, may occur. It is life-threatening.
  • Eczema, rashes, and temporary edema are allergic reactions that may be noted with asthma.


Patients with recurrent asthma should undergo tests to identify the substances that precipitate the symptoms.
  • Allergens. Allergens, either seasonal or perennial, can be prevented through avoiding contact with them whenever possible.
  • Knowledge. Knowledge is the key to quality asthma care.
  • Evaluation. Evaluation of impairment and risk are key in the control.


Complications for asthma include the following:
  • Status asthmaticus. Airway obstruction in status asthmaticus often results in hypoxemia.
  • Respiratory failure. Asthma, if left untreated, progresses to respiratory failure.
  • Pneumonia. Mucus that pools in the lungs and becomes infected can lead to the development of pneumonia.

Assessment and Diagnostic Findings

To determine the diagnosis of asthma, the clinician must determine that episodic symptoms of airway obstruction are present.
  • Positive family history. Asthma is a hereditary disease, and can be possibly acquired by any member of the family who has asthma within their clan.
  • Environmental factors. Seasonal changes, high pollen counts, mold, pet dander, climate changes, and air pollution are primarily associated with asthma.
  • Comorbid conditions. Comorbid conditions that may accompany asthma may include gastroeasophageal reflux, drug-induced asthma, and allergic broncopulmonary aspergillosis.

Medical Management

Immediate intervention may be necessary, because continuing and progressive dyspnea leads to increased anxiety, aggravating the situation.

Pharmacologic Therapy

  • Short-acting beta2adrenergic agonists. These are the medications of choice for relief of acute symptoms and prevention of exercise-induced asthma.
  • Anticholinergics. Anticholinergics inhibit muscarinic cholinergic receptors and reduce intrinsic vagal tone of the airway.
  • Corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are most effective in alleviating symptoms, improving airway function, and decreasing peak flow variability.
  • Leukotriene modifiers. Anti Leukotrienes are potent bronchoconstrictors that also dilate blood vessels and alter permeability.
  • Immunomodulators. Prevent binding of IgE to the high affinity receptors of basophils and mast cells.

Peak Flow Monitoring

Peak Flow Meter
Peak Flow Meter. Image via:
  • Peak flow meters. Peak flow meters measure the highest airflow during a forced expiration.
  • Daily peak flow monitoring. This is recommended for patients who meet one or more of the following criteria: have moderate or severe persistent asthma, have poor perception of changes in airflow or worsening symptoms, have unexplained response to environmental or occupational exposures, or at the discretion of the clinician or patient.
  • Function. If peak flow monitoring is used, it helps measure asthma severity and, when added to symptom monitoring, indicates the current degree of asthma control.

Nursing Management

The immediate care of patients with asthma depend on the severity of the symptoms.

Nursing Assessment

Assessment of a patient with asthma includes the following:
  • Assess the patient’s respiratory status by monitoring the severity of the symptoms.
  • Assess for breath sounds.
  • Assess the patient’s peak flow.
  • Assess the level of oxygen saturation through the pulse oximeter.
  • Monitor the patient’s vital signs.

Nursing Diagnosis

Based on the data gathered, the nursing diagnoses appropriate for the patient with asthma include:

Nursing Care Planning & Goals

Main Article: 5 Bronchial Asthma Nursing Care Plans

To achieve success in the treatment of a patient with asthma, the following goals should be applied:
  • Maintenance of airway patency.
  • Expectoration of secretions.
  • Demonstration of absence/reduction of congestion with breath sounds clear, respirations noiseless, improved oxygen exchange.
  • Verbalization of understanding of causes and therapeutic management regimen.
  • Demonstration of behaviors to improve or maintain clear airway.
  • Identification of potential complications and how to initiate appropriate preventive or corrective actions.

Nursing Interventions

The nurse generally performs the following interventions:
  • Assess history. Obtain a history of allergic reactions to medications before administering medications.
  • Assess respiratory status. Assess the patient’s respiratory status by monitoring the severity of symptoms, breath sounds, peak flow, pulse oximetry, and vital signs.
  • Assess medications. Identify medications that the patient is currently taking. Administer medications as prescribed and monitor the patient’s responses to those medications; medications may include an antibiotic if the patient has an underlying respiratory infection.
  • Pharmacologic therapy. Administer medications as prescribed and monitor patient’s responses to medications.
  • Fluid therapy. Administer fluids if the patient is dehydrated.


To determine the effectiveness of the plan of care, evaluation must be performed. The following must be evaluated:
  • Maintenance of airway patency.
  • Expectoration or clearance of secretions.
  • Absence /reduction of congestion with breath sound clear, noiseless respirations, and improved oxygen exchange.
  • Verbalized understanding of causes and therapeutic management regimen.
  • Demonstrated behaviors to improve or maintain clear airway.
  • Identified potential complications and how to initiate appropriate preventive or corrective actions.

Discharge and Home Care Guidelines

A major challenge is to implement basic asthma management principles at the home and community level.
  • Collaboration. The complex therapy of treating asthma at home needs collaboration between the patient and the health care provider to determine the desired outcomes and to formulate a plan to achieve those outcomes.
  • Health education. Patient teaching is a critical component of care for patients with asthma. Teach patient and family about asthma (chronic inflammatory), purpose and action of medications, triggers to avoid and how to do so, and proper inhalation technique. Instruct patient and family about peak-flow monitoring. Obtain current educational materials for the patient based on the patient’s diagnosis, causative factors, educational level, and cultural background.
  • Compliance to therapy. Nurses should emphasize adherence to the prescribed therapy, preventive measures, and the need to keep follow-up appointments with health care providers. Teach patient how to implement an action plan and how and when to seek assistance.
  • Home visits. Home visits by the nurse to assess the home environment for allergens may be indicated for patients with recurrent exacerbations.

Documentation Guidelines

Documentation is a necessary part of the nursing care provided, and the following data must be documented:
  • Related factors for individual client.
  • Breath sounds, presence and character of secretions, and use of accessory muscles for breathing.
  • Character of cough and sputum.
  • Respiratory rate, pulse oximetry/o2 saturation, and vital signs.
  • Plan of care and who is involved in planning.
  • Teaching plan.
  • Client’s response to interventions, teaching, and actions performed.
  • Use of respiratory devices/airway adjuncts.
  • Response to medications administered.
  • Attainment or progress towards desired outcomes.
  • Modifications to the plan of care.

Practice Quiz: Asthma

Let’s reinforce what you’ve learned with this 5-item NCLEX practice quiz about Asthma.

Exam Mode

In Exam Mode: All questions are shown but the results, answers, and rationales (if any) will only be given after you’ve finished the quiz.

Practice Quiz: Asthma

Congratulations - you have completed Practice Quiz: Asthma. You scored %%SCORE%% out of %%TOTAL%%. Your performance has been rated as %%RATING%%
Your answers are highlighted below.

Practice Mode

Practice Mode: This is an interactive version of the Text Mode. All questions are given in a single page and correct answers, rationales or explanations (if any) are immediately shown after you have selected an answer. No time limit for this exam.

Practice Quiz: Asthma

Congratulations - you have completed Practice Quiz: Asthma. You scored %%SCORE%% out of %%TOTAL%%. Your performance has been rated as %%RATING%%
Your answers are highlighted below.

Text Mode

Text Mode: All questions and answers are given on a single page for reading and answering at your own pace. Be sure to grab a pen and paper to write down your answers. 1. Histamine, a mediator that supports the inflammatory process in asthma, is secreted by: A. Eosinophils B. Lymphocytes C. Mast cells D. Neutrophils 2. Obstruction of the airway in the patient with asthma is caused by all of the following except: A. Thick mucus B. Swelling of bronchial membranes C. Destruction of the alveolar wall D. Contraction of muscles surrounding the bronchi 3. A commonly prescribed mast cell stabilizer used for asthma is: A. Albuterol B. Budesonide C. Cromolyn sodium D. Theophylline 4. There are several comorbid conditions that accompany asthma but it does not include: A. Gastroeasophageal reflux B. Drug-induced asthma C. Hypertension D. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 5. The strongest predisposing factor for asthma is: A. Chronic exposure to airway irritants B. Exercise C. Medications D. Allergy Answers and Rationale 1. Answer: C. Mast cells
  • C: When the mast cells are activated, it releases several chemicals called mediators, and one of them is histamine.
  • A: Eosinophils are part of the inflammatory process in asthma.
  • B: Lymphocytes have a role in the inflammatory process in asthma.
  • D: Neutrophils are part of the inflammatory process in asthma.
2. Answer: C. Destruction of the alveolar wall
  • C: There is no destruction of the alveolar wall in asthma.
  • A: Thick mucus causes obstruction of the airway.
  • B: Swelling of the bronchial membranes causes bronchoconstriction or obstruction of the airway.
  • D: Contraction of muscles surrounding the bronchi is a cause of obstruction of the airway.
3. Answer: C. Cromolyn sodium
  • C: Cromolyn sodium is a mast stabilizer commonly prescribed for patients with asthma.
  • A: Albuterol is not a mast cell stabilizer; it is a short-acting beta2 adrenergic agonist.
  • B: Budesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid.
  • D: Theophylline is classified as methylxanthine.
4. Answer: C. Hypertension
  • C: Hypertension is not a comorbid condition of asthma.
  • A: GERD occurs along with asthma in some patients.
  • B: Drug-induced asthma is a comorbid condition of asthma.
  • D: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a comorbid condition of asthma.
5. Answer: D. Allergy
  • D: Allergy is the strongest predisposing factor for asthma.
  • A: One of the causes of chronic exposure to airway irritants.
  • B: Exercise is one of the predisposing factors of asthma.
  • C: Medications can also start the development of asthma.

See Also

Posts related to Asthma:


Ask our team

Want to contact us directly? No problem. We are always here for you.

Frequently Asked Buy a Nursing essay Questions

See all
Is your service confidential?

When you place an order with our company, we ask you to provide us with such personal information as your name, phone number, and email address. We need this data to keep you updated on the important things related to your order or account, and never share it with any third parties. We also don’t use your contact details for spamming you.

Please note that our support team may contact you using only the phone number(s) stated on our website, such +1 (248) 599-2414 and/+44 (151) 528-2636. In order to secure our mutual cooperation, please do not communicate with those who introduce themselves as essaypapers support staff and reach you from different phone numbers.

Also, remember that we never ask you to provide your credit card information via phone conversations. You should enter this information only on PayPal or Gate2Shop billing forms when making an online payment on our website. The essaypapers support administrator will send a confirmation letter to your personal order page when your payment is received.

We also use a secure encrypted connection and do not store your private data if we do not need it anymore. For more details about how we ensure your confidentiality, check our Privacy Policy, which completely complies with the GDPR.

We offer original model papers that can be used legally in a number of ways if properly referenced:

  • As a source of arguments or ideas for your own research
  • As a source of additional understanding of the subject
  • Direct citing

Nonetheless, check your college’s/university’s policies, including their definition of plagiarism and paraphrasing before using our services. Make conscious decisions in regards to your education.

How do I order a paper from essaypapers?

We take care not only of your academic success, but also of your experience with us. That’s why we have made the process of placing your order as easy and fast as possible—usually, it takes no more than 2-3 minutes.

Let’s have a closer look at the simple steps you need to go through for submitting your order:

Fill in the order form.

Be sure to include specific instructions regarding your paper and to upload any of the required materials. If you have any questions while specifying your paper’s information, just click on the info sign at the end of every field name and you will see a detailed tip on what exact information is required.

Proceed with the payment.

After you are through with the order form, you will need to make a payment via a preferable system. Right after that, you will be automatically provided with your personal order page where you can track your order’s progress, provide additional requirements, and send messages to your writer or support manager.

A personal writer is assigned to your order.

Our qualified staff will choose the most suitable writer whose skills and experience match your field of study and paper’s details. In case the writer must have any particular software or literature in order to get the Nursing Assignment done, please do not forget to mention this in your initial instructions.

Your paper is completed and delivered to your personal order page.

When the writer finishes your paper, it is delivered to your personal order page as a PDF document, available for preview only. You will be able to download an editable MS Word version of the order right after you click the “Approve” button in the “Files” tab of your personal order page. If any changes are to be applied to the paper, you are always welcome to request a free revision with a new deadline for the writer (be sure to check more information about this in our revision policy).

You can check how easy the process is by going to the order page and submitting your paper details right now.

Is there a money-back guarantee? If yes, how can I receive a refund?

You can get more details about possible types and terms of refunds on our official money-back guarantee page.

How will I receive a completed paper?

You will get the first version of your paper in a non-editable PDF format within the deadline. You are welcome to check it and inform us if any changes are needed. If everything is okay, and no amendments are necessary, you can approve the order and download the .doc file. If there are any issues you want to change, you can apply for a free revision and the writer will amend the paper according to your instructions.

If there happen to be any problems with downloading your paper, please contact our support team.

What if I’m not satisfied with my order?

If your paper needs some changes, you can apply for a free revision that is available for 7 days after your paper is approved. To use this option, you have a “Revision” button on your personal page.

After the 7-day period, you cannot apply for a free revision, though you still can use a paid revision option. The price of such a revision will differ depending on the number of amendments needed to be done. Please contact our support team to find out how we can help you with the amendments to your paper.

If you think our writer didn’t manage to follow your instructions, and as a result, your paper is of poor quality, please contact us and we will do our best to solve the problem.

If the revisions didn’t give the desired result, you can apply for a refund. Our dispute department will process your inquiry to find out what kind of refund we can give you. To find out more, please visit our money-back guarantee page.

How do I request a refund?

You can’t apply for a refund on certain stages of your order, like when the order is not finished by the writer yet.

When the paper is delivered, the “Refund” button on your personal order page becomes clickable.

On the relevant tab of your personal order page, you will also be able to choose the type of refund you’re demanding and the reason why you applying for it. As soon as you do that, our dispute department will start working on your inquiry. All kinds of refunds concerning the quality or the lateness of your paper should be requested within 14 days from the time the paper was delivered, as in 14 days your paper, will be automatically approved.

Your inquiry should be submitted by clicking the “Refund” button on your personal order page only.

Order your essay today and save 15% with the discount code NURSINGHELP