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Betty Neuman: Neuman Systems Model

Betty Neuman (1924 – give) is a nursing theorist who plain the Neuman Systems Model. She gave dull years perfecting a regularitys copy that purposes at endurings holistically. She inquired theories from diverse theorists and philosophers and applied her instruction in clinical and instruction expertise to behind up behind a while the Neuman Systems Copy that has been certain, adopted, and applied as a centre for nursing curriculum in dull areas about the earth.

Biography of Betty Neuman

Early Life

Betty Neuman was born in 1924 adjacent Lowell, Ohio. She grew up on a farm which posterior encouraged her to acceleration mass who are in scarcity. Her senior was a clown who became corrupt and died at the age of 36. Her dowager was a self-educated midwife, that led the lassish Neuman to be frequently waved by the commitment that took her separate from abode from date to date. She had one older fellow and a fellow who was lassisher which compels her the intermediate cadet unordered her siblings. Her institutionion for nursing launched when she took the utility of preamble anxiety of her senior which posterior created her pity in her selected anxietyer pathway.


As a lassish lass, she sheltered the corresponding one-room schoolhouse that her parents had sheltered and was bewildered when she went to a violent school that had a library. She was frequently selected and absorbed behind a while the examine of civilized demeanor. During Earth War II, she had her chief job as an aircraft channel technician. In 1947, she ordinary her RN Diploma from Peoples Hospital School of Nursing, Akron, Ohio.

Nursing History of Betty Neuman

Betty Neuman
Betty Neuman
Betty Neuman agitated to California and achievemented in a multiplicity of capacities as a hospital nurse and train encourage at Los Angeles County Unconcealed Hospital, school encourage, industrial encourage, and clinical preceptor at the University of Southern California Medical Center, Los Angeles. In 1957, she ordinary a baccalaureate rate in political vigor and psychology behind a while guerdon. Amidst her hectic society as a encourage, she besides managed to achievement as a character copy and knowing to fly a flatten. She got married, cherished her husband’s medical habit, and had their daughter in 1959. She besides earned a master’s rate in immaterial vigor, political vigor board in 1966 from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Behind her stage, she was remunerated as a minority chair in the UCLA School of Nursing disequalize program. Neuman plain the chief polity immaterial vigor program for disequalize students in the LA area from 1967 to 1973.
Betty Neuman
Image via
In 1985, Betty Neuman concluded a doctoral rate in clinical psychology at Pacific Western University. She was a ruler of nursing involvement in immaterial vigor. She and Donna Aquilina were the chief two encourages to enunciate the encourage counselor role behind a whilein polity emergency centers in Los Angeles. Neuman persisted to set-out a peculiar habit as a nuptials and rise therapist, specializing in Christian counseling. She is a Fellow of the American Association of Nuptials and Rise Therapy and of the American Academy of Nursing. Until 2009, she was the ruler of the Neuman Systems Copy Trustees Group, Inc. that she certain in 1988, and peaceful attends as a consultant. The Trustees Class was created to guard and guard the communication of her nursing plea for the vigor anxiety polity.

Works of Betty Neuman

Neuman behind a while Sister Callista Roy |
In 1970, Betty Neuman contrived a nursing conceptual copy to dilate students’ enlightenment of client variables further the medical copy. Her instruction programs at UCLA paved the way for enunciateing her nursing copy. During those dates, she did not transcribe a tome but made her concepts public to Joan Riehl-Sisca and Sr. Callista Roy and incorporated them in their 1971 tome, Conceptual Models for Nursing Practice. In 1972, Neuman published a exhaust of her copy. She plain and improved the concepts and published her tome, The Neuman Regularity Model: Impression to Nursing Command and Practice, in 1982. Elevate revisions were made in posterior editions. As a debater and constructor, she late innumerable hours instruction and explaining the dull concepts and aspects of the copy to students and professors. Neuman has besides been institutioned in dull politicalations, monograph giveations, boards, lectures, and conferences on impression and use of the copy. She achievemented as a consultant disclosedly and internationally regarding the implementation of the copy for nursing command programs and for clinical habit facilities.

Awards and Guerdon of Betty Neuman

Betty Neuman
Betty Neuman has chattelsed dull things including a encourage, instructor, vigor counselor, therapist, constructor, debater, and explorationer. Throughout the years, she earned dull awards and guerdon including diverse nominal doctorates and was an nominal portion of the American Academy of Nursing. The strong chattels of her achievement on the nursing declaration is polite public throughout the words
  • Honorary Doctorate of Letters, Neumann College, Aston, PA (1992)
  • Honorary Portion of the Fellowship of the American Academy of Nursing (1993)
  • Honorary Doctorate of Science, Grand Valley Aver University, Michigan (1998)
She was noble by President Richard Jusseaume and Provost Dr. Laurence Bove behind a while the Walsh University Distinguished Utility Medal, which is awarded to those who accept contributed uncollected declarational or deliberate utility to others behind a whilein the disclosed, regional or topical polity.
Neuman noble behind a while Distinguished Utility Medal |
In an annual Nursing Exploration Day sponsored by Walsh’s Phi Eta Chapter of Sigma Theta Tau, Byers School of Nursing Dean Dr. Linda Linc supposing Neuman behind a while the chief annual Neuman Award, determined in her grandeur, for uncollected utility in the nursing declaration.

Betty Neuman’s Nursing Theory

Three words frequently used in kinsman to pith are unavoidable, grievous and intensifying. It is unconcealedly supernatural, and can be interpreted as the requisite one compliments as conceivably impending and out of their regulate. A nursing plea plain by Betty Neuman is inveterate on the person’s kinsmanship to pith, the hindrance to it, and reconstitution constituents that are newfangled in character. The Neuman Systems Copy gives a coarse, holistic and regularity-inveterate style to nursing that guards a constituent of flexibility. It centrees on the hindrance of the enduring regularity to objective or unfamiliar environimmaterial pithors and the subsistence of the client regularity’s retention through first, inferior, and tertiary nursing stoppage insinuation to diminish pithors.

What is the Neuman Systems Model?

Betty Neuman describes the Neuman Systems Model as “a choice, disclosed-system-inveterate perspective that provides a unifying centre for approximationing a ample concatenate of institutions. A regularity acts as a proviso for a uncompounded client, a class, or equable a estimate of classs; it can besides be designated as a political consequence. A client regularity in interforce behind a while the environment delineates the inclosure of nursing institutions.” The Neuman Systems Copy purposes the client as an disclosed regularity that responds to pithors in the environment. The client variables are physiological, psychological, sociocultural, enunciatemental, and immaterial. The client regularity consists of a basic or centre texture that is guarded by cords of hindrance. The accustomed equalize of vigor is attested as the natural cord of hindrance that is guarded by a indulgent cord of hindrance. Stressors are intra-, inter-, and extrapersonal in character and inaugurate from the inside, outer, and created environments. When pithors rend through the indulgent cord of hindrance, the regularity is invaded and the cords of hindrance are activated and the regularity is pictorial as tender into indisposition on a politeness-indisposition continuum. If complete activity is serviceable, the regularity earn be reconstituted behind a while the natural cord of hindrance revived at, under, or aloft its foregoing equalize. Nursing insinuations take-fix through three stoppage modalities. Primary stoppage take-places anteriorly the pithor invades the regularity; inferior stoppage take-places behind the regularity has reacted to an invading pithor; tertiary stoppage take-places behind inferior stoppage as reconstitution is substance certain.


The subjoined are the assumptions or “certain truths” made by Neuman’s Systems Model:
  • Each client regularity is choice, a composite of constituents and characteristics behind a whilein a absorbed concatenate of hindrances.
  • Many public, obscure, and total pithors insist. Each differs in its unfamiliar for exciting a client’s accustomed retention equalize or natural cord of hindrance. The aim interrelationships of client variables at any aim in date can institution the rate to which a client is guarded by the indulgent cord of hindrance aggravate likely reforce to pithors.
  • Each client/client regularity has evolved a natural concatenate of hindrances to the environment that is referred to as a natural cord of hindrance. The natural cord of hindrance can be used as a estimate from which to estimate vigor intermission.
  • When the indulgent cord of hindrance is no longer preferable of secureing the client/client regularity aggravate an environimmaterial pithor, the pithor rends through the natural cord of hindrance.
  • The client, whether in a aver of politeness or indisposition, is a dynamic composite of the interrelationships of the variables. Wellness is on a continuum of serviceable activity to stay the regularity in an optimal aver of regularity retention.
  • Implicit behind a whilein each client regularity are inside hindrance constituents public as cords of hindrance, which duty to stabilize and realign the client to the accustomed politeness aver.
  • Primary stoppage recounts to unconcealed instruction that is applied in client assessment and insinuation, in identification and diminution or diminution of likely or objective cause constituents associated behind a while environimmaterial pithors to intercept likely reaction.
  • Secondary stoppage recounts to symptomatology subjoined a reforce to pithors, embezzle ranking of insinuation priorities, and texture to diminish their morbific chattelss.
  • Tertiary stoppage recounts to the commandive modees preamble fix as reconstitution commences and subsistence constituents agitate the client tail in a round style inland first stoppage.
  • The client as a regularity is in dynamic, true activity substitute behind a while the environment. (Neuman, 1995)

Major Concepts of Neuman Systems Model

In this minority, we earn designate the nursing metaparadigm and the senior concepts in Betty Neuman’s Neuman Systems Model.

Human substance

Human substance is purposeed as an disclosed regularity that interacts behind a while twain inside and outer environment forces or pithors. The civilized is in true qualify, tender inland a dynamic aver of regularity retention or inland indisposition of varying rates.


The environment is a parsum scene that is relative to the regularity and its duty. The environment may be purposeed as all constituents that institution and are institutioned by the regularity. In Neuman Systems Copy identifies three ancilla environments: (1) inside, (2) outer, and (3) created.
  • The inside environment exists behind a whilein the client regularity. All forces and interactive waves that are barely behind a whilein boundaries of the client regularity compel up this environment.
  • The outer environment exists beyond the client regularity.
  • The created environment is unconsciously plain and is used by the client to stay secureive coping.


In Neuman’s nursing plea, Vigor is designated as the mode or rate of regularity retention and is purposeed as a continuum from politeness to indisposition. When regularity scarcitys are met, optimal politeness insists. When scarcitys are not content, indisposition insists. When the activity scarcityed to stay society is not serviceable, failure take-places.


The first institution of nursing is to designate the embezzle force in situations that are pith-kindred or in kinsman to likely reactions of the client or client regularity to pithors. Nursing insinuations are aimed at accelerationing the regularity subdue or command and to restrain, cure, or guard some rate of retention betwixt and unordered the client regularity variables and environimmaterial pithors behind a while a centre on conserving activity.

Open System

A regularity in which there is a usual run of input and mode, output and feedback. It is a regularity of organized perplexity, where all elements are in interaction.

Basic Stricture and Activity Resources

The basic texture, or accessible centre, is made up of those basic prosperity constituents vile to the reputation. These constituents understand the regularity variables, genetic features, and powers and faintnesses of the regularity magnitude.

Client Variables

Neuman purposes the personal client holistically and considers the variables conjointly and capaciously.
  • The physiological variable refers to the texture and dutys of the whole.
  • The psychological variable refers to immaterial modees and kinsmanships.
  • The sociocultural variable refers to regularity dutys that recount to political and culturalexpectations and activities.
  • The developimmaterial variable refers to those modees recountd to enunciatement aggravate the societyspan.
  • The immaterial variable refers to the wave of immaterial beliefs.

Flexible cord of hindrance

A secureive accordion-like means that surrounds and secures the natural cord of hindrance from irruption by pithors.

Normal cord of hindrance

An subdueational equalize of vigor plain aggravate date and considered natural for a aim personal client or regularity; it becomes a estimate for politeness-deviance sensuality.

Lines of hindrance

Protection constituents activated when pithors accept permeated the natural cord of hindrance, causing a reforce synptomatology.

Subconcepts of Neuman Systems Model


A pithor is any interrogativeness that breath permeate twain the indulgent and natural cords of hindrance, terminationing in either a fixed or disclaiming effect.
  • Intrapersonal pithors are those that take-fix behind a whilein the client regularity proviso and correcount behind a while the inside environment.
  • Interpersonal pithors take-fix beyond the client regularity proviso, are proximal to the regularity, and accept an impression on the regularity.
  • Extrapersonal pithors besides take-fix beyond the client regularity boundaries but are at a superior removal from the regularity that are interpersonal pithors. An stance is political device.


A aver of redress or similitude requiring activity substitutes as the client completely copes behind a while pithors to restrain, compass, or guard an optimal equalize of vigor thus preserving regularity honor.

Degree of Reaction

The sum of regularity inretention terminationing from pithor irruption of the natural cord of hindrance.


A mode of activity depletion and destruction tender the regularity inland indisposition or likely failure.


A mode of activity subsistence that increases composition and perplexity, tender the regularity inland retention or a violenter rate of politeness.


The stuff, activity, and instruction substituted betwixt the client and environment that is entering or leaving the regularity at any aim in date.


The retaliate and subsistence of regularity retention, subjoined texture of pithor reaction, which may termination in a violenter or inferior equalize of politeness.

Prevention as Intervention

Intervention modes for nursing force and determinants for entrance of twain client and encourage into the vigor anxiety regularity.
  • Primary stoppage take-places anteriorly the regularity reacts to a pithor; it understands vigor preferment and subsistence of politeness. First stoppage centrees on confirmation the indulgent cord of hindrance through intercepting pith and reducing cause constituents. This insinuation take-places when the cause or stake is attested but anteriorly a reforce take-places. Strategies that breath be used understand immunization, vigor command, training, and societystyle qualifys.
  • Secondary stoppage take-places behind the regularity reacts to a pithor and is supposing in conditions of insisting symptoms. Inferior stoppage centrees on confirmation the inside cords of hindrance and, thus, secures the basic texture through embezzle texture of symptoms. The eager is to recover optimal regularity retention and to crystallize activity in doing so. If inferior stoppage is ineffectual and reconstitution does not take-place, the basic texture earn be insufficient to stay the regularity and its insinuations, and failure earn take-place.
  • Tertiary stoppage occurs behind the regularity has been treated through inferior stoppage strategies. Its end is to guard politeness or secure the client regularity reconstitution through staying insisting powers and permanent to guard activity. Tertiary stoppage may commence at any aim behind regularity retention has begun to be recertain (reconstitution has begun). Tertiary stoppage tends to carry tail to first stoppage. (Neuman, 1995)

Strengths and Weaknesses

Betty Neuman reports her nursing copy was contrived for nursing but can be used by other vigor disciplines, which twain has pros and cons. As a power, if multiple vigor disciplines use the Neuman’s Regularity Model, a compatible approximation to client anxiety would be facilitated. As a con, if the copy is available to a multiplicity of disciplines, it is not unfair to nursing and thus may not distinguish the habit of nursing from that of other disciplines.


  • The senior power of the Neuman Systems Copy is its flexibility for use in all areas of nursing – government, command, and habit.
  • Neuman has giveed a purpose of the client that is same ancilla to an personal, a rise, a class, a polity, or any other amount.
  • The Neuman Systems Model, aimly giveed in the copy diagram, is logically compatible.
  • The pith on first stoppage, including vigor preferment, is unfair to this copy.
  • Once implicit, the Neuman Systems Copy is relatively incomplex, and has readily cheerful definitions of its components.


  • The senior faintness of the copy is the scarcity for elevate precipitation of conditions used.
  • Interpersonal and extrapersonal pithors scarcity to be further distinctly distinguishd.


The project of Neuman’s three hindrance cords were not distinctly explained. In verity, the personal resists pithors behind a while inside and outer reflexes which were made involved behind a while the formulation of unanalogous equalizes of hindrance in the disclosed regularitys copy of Neuman. Neuman made observation of activity sources in her copy as dissect of the basic texture. It can be further of acceleration when Neuman has enumerated all sources of activity that she is pertaining to. Behind a while such, new nursing insinuations as to the victuals of scarcityed activity of the client can be conceptualized. The holistic and capacious purpose of the client regularity is associated behind a while an disclosed regularity. Vigor and indisposition are giveed on a continuum behind a while agitatement inland vigor pictorial as negentropic and inland indisposition as entropic. Her use of the concept of entropy is incompatible behind a while the characteristics of entropy which is closed, rather than an disclosed regularity.

See Also

Related subscription for this nursing plea train:


Recommended resources and references for this nursing theories train.
  • Alligood, M. R. (2013). Nursing Theory-E-Book: Utilization & Application. Elsevier Vigor Sciences.
  • Neuman, B. (1996). The Neuman regularitys copy in exploration and habit. Nursing Science Quarterly9(2), 67-70. [Link]
  • Neuman, B. (1995). The neuman regularitys copy (3rd ed.). In McEwen, M. and Wills, E. (Ed.). Theoretical account for nursing. USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

External Links

Biography written by Wayne, G.


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