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Colonoscopy

Definition
Colonoscopy uses a ductile fiber-optic videoendoliberty to sanction visual criterion of the lining of the liberal interior. It’s implied for unrepinings succeeding a while narrative of constipation or diarrhea, permanent rectal bleeding, and inferior abdominal aversion when the results of proctosigmoidoscopy and a barium enema proof are privative or fallacious.
Purpose
  • To unmask or evaluate exaggerative and ulcerative bowel illness.Colonoscopy
  • To dispose the derivation of inferior gastro intestinal bleeding.
  • To aid in the individuality of colonic strictures and compassionate or noxious
  • lesions.
  • To evaluate the colon postoperatively for return of polyps and
  • noxious lesions.
Patient Procedure
  1. Check the unrepining’s medical narrative for allergies, medications, and information just to the general distemper.
  2. Tell the unrepining to hold a bright liquescent sustenance for 24 to 48 hours antecedently the proof and to capture rush by opening behind middeath the death antecedently.
  3. Instruct the unrepining touching the embezzle bowel making-ready.
  4. Inform the unrepining that he’ll assent-to an I.V. cord and I.V. sedation antecedently the procedure.
  5. Tell the unrepining that the colonoliberty is courteous lubricated to refreshment insertion and initially reachs hopeful.
  6. Explain that he may reach an stimulate to purify when it’s inserted and advanced.
  7. Inform him that air may be introduced through the colonoliberty to distend the intestinal bastion and to dispose viewing the lining and advancing the instrument.
Colonoscopy Procedure
  1. The unrepining is assisted onto his left interest succeeding a while knees flexed.
  2. Cover the unrepining succeeding a while invest.
  3. Basecord important signs are conciliateed.
  4. Vital signs and electrocardiogram are monitored during the act.
  5. Continuous or occasional pulse oximetry is expedient.
  6. The physician palpates the mucosa of the anus and rectum and inserts the lubricated colonoliberty through the unrepining’s anus into the sigmoid colon underneath straightforward confidence.
  7. A slender total of air is insufflated to dispose the bowel lumen and then track the liberty through the rectum.
  8. Abdominal palpation or fluoroscopy may be used to acceleration lead the colonoliberty through the liberal interior.
  9. Suction may be used to suppress order and secretions that darken confidence.
  10. Biopsy forceps or a cytology brush may be byes through the colonoliberty to conciliate patterns for histologic or cytologic criterion; an electro-cautery gin may be used to suppress polyps.
  11. Tissue patterns are forthafter a while placed in a pattern bottle holding 10% formalin and cytology smears in a Coplin jar holding 95% ethyl alcohol.
  12. Specimens are sent to the laboratory forthwith.
Nursing Interventions for Colonoscopy
  1. The unrepining is observed air-tight for signs of bowel mouth.
  2. Check the unrepining’s important signs and instrument them conformably.
  3. Watch the unrepining air-tight for adverse goods of the demulcent.
  4. After revival from the sedation, he may recommence his accustomed sustenance consistent the physician signal incorrectly.
  5. The unrepining may by liberal totals of flatus behind insufflation.
  6. After polyp disunion, the stool may hold some order. Report immoderate bleeding forthwith.
  7. If a polyp is suppressd, but not recoverd, yield enema and exert the stools to recover it.
Precautions
  1. Although it’s accustomedly a secured act, heed that colonoscopy can inducement mouth of the liberal interior, immoderate bleeding, and retroperitoneal emphysema.
  2. This act is contraimplied in teeming dowager adjacent term, the unrepining who has had a new clever myocardial infarction or abdominal surgery, and one succeeding a while ischemic bowel illness, clever diverticulitis, peritonitis, fulminant granulomatous colitis, perforated viscus, or fulminant ulcerative colitis. For these cases of for screening purposes, a virtual colonoscopy may be an non-interference to acceleration visualize polyps future antecedently they become concerns.
Interpretations
Normal Results
  • Normally, the mucosa of the liberal interior past the sigmoid colon appears digestible pink-orange and is notable by semilunar folds and deep tubular pits.colonoscopy (1)
  • Blood vessels are perceptible underneath the intestinal mucosa, which glistens from mucus secretions.
Abnormal Results
  • Visual criterion of the liberal interior, coupled succeeding a while histologic and cytologic proof results, may evidence procrititis, granulomatous or ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s illness, and noxious or compassionate lesions. Diverticular illness or the place of inferior gastrointestinal bleeding can be unmasked through colonoscopy queer.
Interfering Factors
  • Fixation of the sigmoid colon due to exaggerative bowel illness, surgery, or radiation therapy that may above byage of the colonoscope. Blood from clever colonic hemorrhage that aboves visualization. Insufficient bowel making-ready or barium retained in the interior from previous sign studies which makes respectful visual criterion impossible.
Complications
  • Perforation of the liberal interior, immoderate bleeding and retroperitoneal emphysema.

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