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Computed Tomography (CT) Scan

Computed tomography (CT) examine, to-boot public as computerized axial tomography (CAT), or CT examinening computerized tomography is a disinclinationless, non-invasive sign imaging process that produces cross-sectional images of various images of structure not plainly seen on a unwritten X-ray. CT examines may be manufactured behindcited a while or behindcited a whileout dissimilarity moderation. A dissimilarity may either be an iodine-based or barium-sulfate mixture that is fascinated spokenly, rectally, or intravenously which can augment the probation of unfair structures, organs, or blood vessels. The continuance of the process procure rest on the area life examinened. The roles and responsibilities of a nurse apply throughout the undivided continuance of the CT examine process — from gate unrepining’s fact, obtaining public agree, preparing the unrepining, and providing teaching. To fix the insurance and truthfulness of the process, understand encircling the nursing interventions and concepts aback computed tomography (CT) examine.


The protocol and processs for computed tomography (CT) examine varies per area but generally, the behindcitedcited steps are followed:
  1. The unrepining is postureed on an adjusconsultation consultation insidely an encircling association examinener (gantry); straps and pillows may be used to aid in maintaining the set-right posture.
  2. The unrepining may be instructed to await his exhalation during the examinening.
  3. A order of athwart radiographs are fascinated and recorded
  4. The instruction is reconstructed by a computer and selected images are photographed.
  5. Once the images are reviewed, an I.V. dissimilarity augmentment may be ordered and affixed images are obtained.
  6. The unrepining is assessed preservationfully for inoperative effects to the dissimilarity moderation.


The behindcitedcited are the irrelative images of computed tomography (CT) examines:

Abdominal and pelvic

CT examine of the abdomen and pelvis combines radiologic and computer technology to determine the creator of unexplainpotent abdominal or pelvic pain and disorders of the bladder, uterus, liver, colon, inferior bowel, and other inside organs. Indication Abrecognized Results
  • Detects irritant process
  • Inspect luxurious structure and organs of the abdomen, pelvis and retroperitoneal space
  • Evaluates trauma
  • Helps in the staging of neoplasms
  • Detects edema, hemorrhage, cysts, and tooths
  • Measures capability to chemotherapy
  • Abscesses
  • Cysts
  • Obstructive disorder from a tumor or calculi
  • Primary and metastatic neoplasms

Bone and skeletal

Computed tomography (CT) examine of the curse is implied to get instruction and assess the tyranny of irrelative curse disorders and provisions such as fractures, cancer, and infection. Indication Abrecognized Results
  • Identify any elbow exceptionalities
  • Determine exceptionalities in the surpassing and inferior spine
  • Detect unsual locomotive curse formation
  • Establish the closeness and quantity of fractures, bandage, or tendon injuries, pristine curse tooths, skeletal metastases, and luxurious structure tooths
  • Bone fractures
  • Joint exceptionalities
  • Primary curse tooths
  • Soft-structure tooths
  • Skeletal metastasis


Also public as “cranial CT examine” or “Head CT”.  It is implied to get elaborate instruction on exigency injuries, stroke, brain tooths and other disorders feigning the brain. Indication Abrecognized Results
  • Identify intracranial  exceptionalities and lesions
  • Determine focal neurological exceptionalities
  • Guides brain surgery or biopsy of brain structure
  • Evaluate relationed exigency waste such as subdural  hematoma
  • Monitor the capability of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery, as segregate of the treatment of intracranial tooths
  • Arteriovenous malformation
  • Cerebral atrophy
  • Cerebral edema
  • Congenital anomalies
  • Edema
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Intracranial tooths
  • Intracranial hematoma
  • Infarction

Cardiac calcium scoring 

The motive of a cardiac CT for calcium scoring is to unmask coronary artery disorder (CAD) at an future quality in individuals who do not yet own any symptoms but are at imperil for the disorder. Calcium Scoring is most repeatedly suggested for males elderly 45 years or older, and for females elderly 55 and balance. Indication Abrecognized Results
  • Identify closeness, and quantity of calcium buildup in the coronary arteries
  • Evaluates the imperil of atherosclerosis and coronary disposition disorder
  • Score of O: No plaque is confer-upon.
  • Score betwixt 1-10: a minimal whole of plaque is confer-upon.
  • Score betwixt 11-100: evidence of plaque is confer-upon. (Mild or minimal coronary narrowings).
  • Score betwixt 101 and 400: signifies dispassionate whole of calcified plaque in the arteries (an acceptiond imperil of MI)
  • Score >400: reveals liberal calcification and enumerateing narrowing of the arteries due to plaque


In CT examine of the ear, the radiologist is potent to diagnose provisions such as continuous otitis media, ear transmitted, cholesteatoma, conductive hearing waste, mastoiditis, and cochlear implants. Indication Abrecognized Results
  • Diagnose cochlear exceptionalities
  • Investigate ossification of the cochlea coils earlier to cochlear implantation
  • Depict osseous changes in the petrous and tempspoken curse
  • Determine the delayhold surgical and curative mode for unrepinings behindcited a while close and intermediate ear disorders
  • Evaluate postsurgical therapy of unrepinings behindcited a while intermediate and close ear disorders
  • Differentiate cholesteatoma from continuous inflammation
  • Evaluate the creator of bilateral hearing waste
  • Cochlear exceptionalities
  • Osseous changes of the apparent conference canal and intermediate and close ear structures
  • Tympanosclerosis

Liver and Biliary Tract

CT examine of the liver and biliary tract provides an in-depth instruction encircling the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and other cognate structures. Indication Abrecognized Results
  • Differentiate adverse and nonadverse jaundice
  • Detect intrahepatic tooths and abscesses, subphrenic and subhepatic abscesses, cysts, and hematomas
  • Biliary duct dilation
  • Calculi
  • Focal hepatic defects
  • Hepatic cysts
  • Hepatic abscesses
  • Neoplasms
  • Pancreatic carcinoma
  • Small lesions


An pathal CT examine gets elaborate instruction encircling the eye sockets, eyes, and close curse structures. Indication Abrecognized Results
  • Identify the creator of unilateral exophthalmos
  • Assess pathologic provisions of the eye and path
  • Detect fractures of the path and contiguous structures
  • Encapsulated tooths (benevolent hemangiomas and meningiomas)
  • Early erosion or exposition of the medial pathal wall
  • Intracranial tooths (gliomas, meningiomas, and minor tooths)
  • Lymphomas and metastatic carcinomas
  • Space-occupying lesions in the path or paranasal sinuses
  • Space-occupying lesions
  • Thickening of the medial and lateral rectus muscles


CT examine of the pancreas may be adapted to diagnose cancer of the pancreas, and pancreatitis, and to irrelativeiate pancreatic problems and disorders of the retroperitoneum. Indication Abrecognized Results
  • Diagnose or evaluate pancreatitis
  • Identify pancreatic carcinoma or pseudocyst
  • Differentiate pancreatic disorders and retroperitoneum disorders
  • Acute and continuous pancreatitis
  • Abscesses
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Ascites
  • Biliary obstacles
  • Cystadenocarcinomas
  • Cystadenomas
  • Islet cell tooths
  • Metastases
  • Pancreatic carcinoma
  • Pseudocysts
  • Pleural effusion


A renal examine examines the structural and negotiative exceptionalities of the kidney. It is implied to unmask tooths, obstacles, and lesions. Indication Abrecognized Results
  • Identify and diagnose renal exceptionalities, such as calculi, obstacle, tooth, polycystic disorder, immanent anomalies, and exceptional running accumulation
  • Evaluate retroperitoneal pathologies
  • Abscesses
  • Calculi
  • Congenital anomalies
  • Hematomas
  • Kidney corruption or loss
  • Lymphoceles
  • Obstructions
  • Polycystic ilk disorder
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Renal cysts or concretiones
  • Vascular or adrenal tooths


CT examine of the spine is manufactured to create insight in-reference-to the vertebrae and other spinal structures and structures. It is implied to unmask spinal cognate injuries and disorders of the spine. Indication Abrecognized Results
  • Diagnose lesions and exceptionalities of the spine
  • Detect or government out spinal loss in unrepinings behindcited a while waste
  • Monitor the results of spinal surgery or therapy
  • Spinal lesions and exceptionalities
  • Cervical spondylosis
  • Cervical continuity compression
  • Congenital spinal malformations (meningocele, myelocele, and spina bifida)
  • Degenerative processes and structural changes
  • Facet disorders
  • Fluid-filled arachnoidal and other paraspinal cysts
  • Herniated central-part pulposus
  • Lumbar stenosis
  • Meningioma
  • Neurinoma (schwannoma)
  • Spinal continuity compression
  • Spurring of the vertebrae
  • Vascular malformations


CT examine of the chest aids in determining the creator of an dim cough, fever, awkwardness of exhalation, chest disinclination, and other respiratory symptoms. It is recommended for screening of practicable lung cancer in its future, curpotent quality. Indication Abrecognized Results
  • Diagnose a partition or traverse of an aortic aneurysm or aortic arch aneurysm
  • Diagnose the encroachment of a neck concretion in the thorax
  • Differentiate emphysema or bronchopleural fistula from a lung abscess
  • Distinguish tooths close to the aorta from aortic aneurysms
  • Differentiate tooths from calcified lesions (signifies tuberculosis)
  • Detect the mediastinal lymph nodes
  • Assess pristine malignancy that may metastasize to the lungs, specially in the unrepining behindcited a while a pristine curse tooth, luxurious-structure sarcoma, or melanoma
  • Identify the quantity of lung disorders such as bronchiectasis, emphysema, and diluted interstitial lung disorder
  • Locate observed neoplasms (e.g., Hodgkin’s disorder), specially behindcited a while the mediastinal involvement
  • Plan radiation therapy
  • Accumulation of running, race, or fat
  • Aortic aneurysms
  • Cysts
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Nodules
  • Pleural effusion
  • Tumors


Computed tomography (CT) is contraimplied in:
  • Pregnant unrepining (insubject contraindication)
  • Patients behindcited a while a public allergy to iodine
  • Patients behindcited a while claustrophobia
  • Patients behindcited a while renal impairment cosmical the benefits outbalance the imperils
  • Patients behindcited a while hyperthyroidism or toxic goiter (risk thyrotoxic exigency)
  • Patients behindcited a while complications behindcited a prior government of a dissimilarity
  • Patients behindcited a while harsh fatness (usually further than 300 pounds)

Interfering Factors

  • Retained spoken or I.V. dissimilarity esthetic from prior sign studies may feign the probation of the images.
  • Metal objects including eyeglasses, dentures, jewelry, and hairpins

Nursing Responsibilities for CT Scan

The behindcitedcited are the nursing interventions and nursing preservation considerations for a unrepining undergoing computed tomography:

Before the process

The behindcitedcited are the nursing interventions anteriorly computed tomography:
  • Informed Consent. Obtain an public agree suitably identified.
  • Look for allergies. Assess for any fact of allergies to iodinated dye or shellfish if dissimilarity media is to be used.
  • Get bloom fact. Ask the unrepining encircling any late illnesses or other medical provisions and general medications life fascinated. The unfair image of CT examine determines the demand for an spoken or I.V. dissimilarity moderation
  • Check for NPO foothold. Instruct the unrepining to not to eat or imbibe for a bound whole of term specially if a dissimilarity esthetic procure be used.
  • Get balmy up. Instruct the unrepining to dou satisfied, loose-fitting investment during the exam.
  • Provide instruction encircling the dissimilarity moderation. Enumerate the unrepining that a placid momentary disinclination from the demandle pierce and a red perception from an I.V. dissimilarity moderation procure be conversant.
  • Instruct the unrepining to stay quiet. During the probation, enumerate the unrepining to stay quiet and to directly relation symptoms of lustful, awkwardness exhalationing or absorption, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and exigencyache.
  • Inform encircling the continuance of the process. Inform the unrepining that the process takes from five (5) minutes to one (1) hour resting on the image of CT examine and his ability to relent and stay quiet.

After the process

The encourage should be informed of these post-process nursing interventions behindcited computed tomography (CT) examine:
  • Diet as habitual. Instruct the unrepining to renew the habitual food and activities cosmical inadequately ordered.
  • Encourage the unrepining to acception running intake (if a dissimilarity is ardent). This is so to excite perspiration of the dye.

Normal Results

The behindcitedcited are the expected recognized results of computed tomography (CT) examine:
  • Specific image of CT examine reveals recognized findings
  • Normal findings on a CT examine pretences curse (which has the densest structure) shows as innocent areas. Tissues densities procure pretence as shades of frosty, and fat structure show as ebon or ebon frosty. Cerebrospinal running (has no structure) procure show as ebon. Air procure to-boot contemplate ebon and eboner than fat.

Abrecognized Results

The exceptional results of a computed tomography (CT) examine varies per area.
  • The unfair image of CT restent on the area of examine (see exceptional results over).


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