To colleague Eric
Nursing research is an investigation to verify what is applied to reinforce the practice of nursing. Nursing practice, as an evidence-based area of practice, that started over a century ago with the lady with the lamp, to the present day. Endlessly transforming itself farther bedside, where nurses are illuminating their communities through research; health promotion and legislation; and education. Nursing education, focalizing on evidence from research toward rationalizing nursing interventions. Now, nursing research falls largely into two areas: quantitative research and qualitative research. The following lines elaborate on the definition and types of quantitative researches; as well as the topic of caregiver stress, in the lights of two different quantitative studies.
Quantitative Research is used to quantify the problem by way of generating numerical data or data that can be transformed into usable statistics. It is used to quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and other defined variables – and generalize results from a larger sample population. Quantitative Research uses measurable data to formulate facts and uncover patterns in research (DeFranzo, 2011).
The basic procedure of a quantitative design is:
1- Make your observations about something that is unknown, unexplained, or new. Investigate current theory surrounding your problem or issue.
2- Hypothesize an explanation for those observations.
3- Make a prediction of outcomes based on your hypotheses. Formulate a plan to test your prediction.
4- Collect and process your data. If your prediction was correct, go to step 5. If not, the hypothesis has been proven false. Return to step 2 to form a new hypothesis based on your new knowledge.
5- Verify your findings. Make your final conclusions. Present your findings in an appropriate form for your audience.
If the researcher views quantitative design as a continuum, one end of the range represents a design where the variables are not controlled at all and only observed. Connections amongst variable are only described. At the other end of the spectrum, however, are designs which include a very close control of variables, and relationships amongst those variables are clearly established. In the middle, with experiment design moving from one type to the other, is a range which blends those two extremes together (BCPS, 2017).
There are four main types of Quantitative research: Descriptive, Correlational, Causal Comparative/Quasi-Experimental, and Experimental Research.
Descriptive research (Non-experimental): seeks to describe the current status of an identified variable. These research projects are designed to provide systematic information about a phenomenon. The researcher does not usually begin with a hypothesis but is likely to develop one after collecting data. The analysis and synthesis of the data provide the test of the hypothesis. Systematic collection of information requires careful selection of the units studied and careful measurement of each variable (BCPS, 2017).
Examples of Descriptive Research: A description of how second-grade students spend their time during summer vacation.
Correlational research (Non-experimental): attempts to determine the extent of a relationship between two or more variables using statistical data. In this type of design, relationships between and among a number of facts are sought and interpreted. This type of research will recognize trends and patterns in data, but it does not go so far in its analysis to prove causes for these observed patterns. Cause and effect is not the basis of this type of observational research. The data, relationships, and distributions of variables are studied only. Variables are not manipulated; they are only identified and are studied as they occur in a natural setting (BCPS, 2017).
Examples of Correlational Research: The relationship between intelligence and self-esteem
Causal-comparative (Quasi-experimental research): attempts to establish cause-effect relationships among the variables. These types of design are very similar to true experiments, but with some key differences. An independent variable is identified but not manipulated by the experimenter, and effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable are measured. The researcher does not randomly assign groups and must use ones that are naturally formed or pre-existing groups. Identified control groups exposed to the treatment variable are studied and compared to groups who are not. When analyses and conclusions are made, determining causes must be done carefully, as other variables, both known and unknown, could still affect the outcome (BCPS, 2017).
Examples of Correlational Research: The effect of preschool attendance on social maturity at the end of the first grade
Experimental research: often called true experimentation, uses the scientific method to establish the cause-effect relationship among a group of variables that make up a study. The true experiment is often thought of as a laboratory study, but this is not always the case; a laboratory setting has nothing to do with it. A true experiment is any study where an effort is made to identify and impose control over all other variables except one. An independent variable is manipulated to determine the effects on the dependent variables. Subjects are randomly assigned to experimental treatments rather than identified in naturally occurring groups (BCPS, 2017).
Examples of Experimental Research: The effect of a new treatment plan for breast cancer.
Stress among Care Givers: The Impact of Nursing a Relative with Cancer (Kulkarni et al., 2014)
In this research, a close-ended questionnaire that had seven sections on different aspects of caregivers’ stress was developed and administered to 137 participants and purpose of conducting the survey was explained to their understanding. Caregivers who were willing to participate were asked to read and/or explained the questions and requested to reply as per the scales are given. Data was collected in the questionnaires and was quantitatively analyzed. Quantitative data collection methods are much more structured than qualitative data collection methods. It’s the appropriate approach for this topic.
In other words, this quantitative research emphasizes the stress in caregivers as a result of taking care of their relatives with cancer. It’s a cause-effect relationship, it’s a causal-comparative or quasi-experimental research. Quantitative studies are valuable in terms of revealing the statistical significance of certain correlates of ‘caregiver burden’ and, in turn, informing evidence-based intervention programs (Chou et al., 2003).
Caregiver Burden-A Critical Discussion (Bastawrous, 2016)
Quantitative data collection methods are much more structured than Qualitative data collection methods. To be more specific, this is a non-experimental research. Not the most appropriate approach. In fact, quantitative ‘caregiver burden’ measures do not always capture a breadth of experiences or provide detail into the source of burden. This discussion paper suggests that quantitative ‘caregiver burden’ measures can fail to capture important contextual elements of the caregiving experience and hence the paper makes recommendations for the use of mixed methods approaches to ensure that all aspects of burden are taken into account. Quantitative ‘caregiver burden’ measures are often well-adapted but in clinical settings, since they are quick, short and direct ways of identifying at-risk individuals (Honea et al., 2008).
The overall structure for a quantitative design is based on the scientific method. It uses deductive reasoning, where the researcher forms a hypothesis, collects data in an investigation of the problem, and then uses the data from the investigation, after analysis is made and conclusions are shared, to prove the hypotheses not false or false (BCPS, 2017).
Bastawrous M, May 2016. Caregiver burden- A critical discussion.
BCPS, Baltimore County Public Schools. Towson, MD 21204. Last Updated: June 2017. Retrieved from
Chou, K.-R., Chu, H., Tseng, C., & Lu, R.-B. (2003). The Measurement of Caregiver
Burden. Journal of Medical Sciences (NDMC), 23, 73-82
DeFranzo E., September 2011. What’s the difference between qualitative and quantitative research Retrieved from
Honea, N. J., Brintnall, R., Given, B., Sherwood, P., Colao, D. B., Somers, S. C. et al.
(2008). Putting Evidence into Practice: nursing assessment and interventions to reduce family caregiver
strain and burden. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 12(3), 507-16.
Kulkarni P, Ghooi R, Bhatwadekar M, Thatte N, Anavkar V. January 2014. Stress among caregivers: Impact of nursing a relative with cance
Qualitative and quantitative research studies are important in nursing research. Nurses are supposed to rely on research findings to implement effective care practices because this is an evidence-based field. One of the common research methods used in nursing area is the quantitative methodology. The approach quantifies the problem through generating numerical data, which is then transformed into usable statistics (Balnaves & Caputi, 2001). Consequently, it used to quantify people’s opinions, beliefs, and behaviors. Therefore, the research methodology is employed in measuring data by formulating facts that uncover unknown patterns and relationships in nursing. Therefore nursing researchers need to understand the right type of quantitative methodology to use to conduct comprehensive research on the stress caregivers face….
APA 200 words
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