GUIDE FOR APPRAISING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ARTICLES Sections of the research article Address these points: Title Explain how the title represents what the research is about. List the words in the title that indicate the population studied, the topic under investigation and the method used. Author/s List what research expertise can be ascertained from the author/s qualifications and affiliations. Abstract Demonstrate how, in the abstract, there is an outline of: x the research aims, problem or hypothesis; x the methodology and methods employed; x include population and data collection; x the results; x the conclusion; x recommendations. Introduction/ literature review Outline how the literature is reviewed to identify a gap in previous research. Identify whether primary or secondary sources are used and provide examples to demonstrate why this is relevant. Explain how the introduction and/or literature review provides a context for the research problem. State the significance of the research problem, aims or hypothesis. Discuss to what extent the literature is critically appraised. Methodology and methods. Outline the aim of the research and explain how this relates to the research problem. Describe how the methodology allows the researchers to answer the aims or address the aim/s of the study or hypothesis. Explain why the sampling method is suitable. Discuss how well the researchers explain the procedure for collecting data. Outline the data analysis method and discuss whether the data analysis is rigorous. Explain whether ethical issues are considered. Results Provide examples to illustrate how results are achieved using analysis methods described previously; Describe the importance of results being clearly stated and supported with raw figures and/or percentages. Discussion Limitations Explain how well the author/s discuss the study findings in relation to the research question or aim/s of the study. Summarise how the authors have linked the results of this study to similar research studies. Explain how the study’s limitations are addressed. Conclusion Outline how well the conclusion follows logically from the results of the study. Explain how the author/s argue for the relevance of their results to clinical practice and make recommendations for further research. If the author/s do not argue this, explain how the results might inform clinical practice and contribute to further research.. Table 1 – adapted from Ingham-Broomfield (2008) and Solutions for Public Health (2010). These resources will help you develop your critiquing skills by leading you through the process. Ingham-Broomfield, R. (2008). A nurses’ guide to the critical reading of research. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26(1), 102-109. Solutions for Public Health. (2010). Critical skills appraisal program. Retrieved February 12, 2013, from http://www.casp-uk.net/ Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal (2014) 17, 139—145 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/aenj RESEARCH PAPER The personality of emergency nurses: Is it unique? Belinda Kennedy, RN, Grad Cert Emergency a,b,∗ Kate Curtis, RN, GDip Crit Care, MN (Hons), PhDa,b,c Donna Waters, RN, MPH, PhDb a Trauma Service, St George Hospital, Gray St, Kogarah, NSW, Australia b Sydney Nursing School, University of Sydney, 88 Mallet St, Camperdown, Australia c St George Clinical School, Kogarah, Faculty of Medicine, University of NSW, Australia Received 4 March 2014; received in revised form 27 May 2014; accepted 15 July 2014 KEYWORDS Personality characteristics; Emergency nurse; Recruitment; Occupational choice Summary Background: With everincreasing demands on emergency services itis necessary to consider how to enhance the recruitment and retention of emergency nurses in public hospitals. Personality is known to influence occupational choice, yet there is a lack of research exploring how personality may influence the workforce decisions of emergency nurses. Methods: A standardised personality test instrument, the NEOTM-PI-3, was used in a survey design inclusive of demographic questions to measure personality characteristics. Data were collected from 72 emergency nurses working at an Australian Emergency Department between July and October 2012. The personality scores of emergency nurses were compared against general population norms in each of five personality domains and their 30 associated facets. Results: Participants scored higher than population norms in the domains of Extraversion (p ∗ Corresponding author at: Trauma Service, St George Hospital, Gray St, Kogarah, Sydney 2217, Australia. Tel.: +61 2 9113 2936; fax: +61 2 9113 3974. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (B. Kennedy). Introduction There is a global nursing shortage that is predicted to worsen in coming years. This is secondary to increased service demands as a result of the ageing population, an ageing nursing workforce and a diverse range of professional http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aenj.2014.07.002 1574-6267/Crown Copyright © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. All rights reserved. 140 B. Kennedy et al. What is known Personality influences occupational choice, as individuals seek a profession that provides personal satisfaction and meets their own personal needs. Personality characteristics have been linked to stress and burnout, similarly some have been shown to improve an individual’s ability to cope in stressful circumstances. The majority of the research undertaken in nursing does not involve defined specialty areas. What this paper adds? This paper provides a personality profile of a group of emergency nurses from the emergency department of a large tertiary referral hospital in Sydney. It is demonstrated that the profile of emergency nurses in this study is different to the general population. opportunities for nurses that take them away from clinical nursing roles.1,2 The emergency department (ED) is the entry point for approximately 40% of all hospital admissions and the demands for emergency care within Australia are growing at rate exceeding population growth.3 Compounding the nursing shortage, vacancies in critical care areas such as emergency are amongst the most difficult to fill.3 In the past, a range of strategies including educational programmes, models of care, workplace leadership and flexible rosters have been considered to enhance recruitment and retention.4—6 While some of these strategies have demonstrated favourable results, it is recognised that no single approach will improve retention. Retaining experienced nurses within the hospital setting requires a combination of approaches to have a sustained impact.1 The retention of emergency nurses not only has potential economic advantages, but also a likely positive impact on patient care and outcomes, as well as improved morale among the nursing workforce.7 The personality of an individual is one factor that has the potential to influence both their recruitment and retention in a role. Yet in nursing, there has been minimal consideration of the influence of personality on these choices. This is despite evidence to suggest that personality will influence career choice.8 Personality is the inner characteristics of an individual that influences their thoughts, feelings and behaviour.9 Occupational choice has been considered an expression of an individual’s personality, as they will seek a profession or role that will provide personal satisfaction and meet their personal needs.8,10 Certain personality characteristics may place individuals at higher risk of burnout, while others may improve their ability to cope under stressful situations.11—13 It is recognised that the ED is a highly stressful environment and staff employed within this area experience high levels of stress and emotional exhaustion.7,14 There has been a considerable amount of research on personality types attracted to a nursing career in general, but there is limited research that explores personality within defined specialty areas.15 That which exists has been carried out a long time ago, using a wide variety of personality instruments, and not consistently measuring the same personality characteristics. While the research is limited, findings have demonstrated differences in the personality characteristics of nurses working within different specialty areas.16,17 Personality testing enables the identifi- cation of individual personality characteristics, permitting a comparison of differences and similarities among and between people.18 Testing can provide information on how an individual is likely to respond or cope when exposed to different situations.19,20 Knowledge ofthe personality profile of emergency nurses not only has the potential to improve recruitment and retention, but also the ability to appropriately meet psychosocial needs addressing issues such as stress and burnout in the workplace. There is some controversy around the use of personality testing in recruitment, however it is currently used in up to 20% of US companies.21 There exists a wide range of theories of personality and an even wider range of instruments to test personality characteristics and domains.18,22 The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality adopts the basic principles of the trait theory of personality. This model has gained wide acceptance among those involved in personality psychology and is supported by an extensive body of research.18,20,23 The FFM provides a structure consisting of five broad domains of personality: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. For each domain there are six associated facets.24 The FFM provides a comprehensive description of personality norms as well as the possibility of distinguishing personality differences between individuals.24,25 The NEOTM Inventories were specifically developed to test personality according to the FFM, and as such are one of the most widely accepted tools for this purpose.26 Given the information available from previous studies, it is reasonable to hypothesise that one would find different personality profiles among nurses working within different specialties. The present study aimed to use the NEOTMPI-3 to develop a profile of emergency nurse personality characteristics to establish whether clusters of common personality characteristics can be identified among this specialty nursing group. Methods Site and sample The ED of a large tertiary referral trauma hospital in Sydney, Australia was the sole site for data collection. In 2012 this ED managed 66,507 presentations, approximately 20% of which were paediatric. The study used a convenience sample of registered nurses employed on a permanent basis within the ED between July and October 2012. Instruments Two questionnaires were combined to collect demographic, workplace and personality data. The first questionnaire collected participant demographics and information around personal and work related factors considered to influence Personality profile of emergency nurses 141 Table 1 Personality domains and facets of the NEOTM-PI-3 according to five factor model of personality.26 Personality domain Facets N: Neuroticism N1: Anxiety N2: Angry Hostility N3: Depression N4: Self-consciousness N5: Impulsiveness N6: Vulnerability E: Extraversion E1: Warmth E2: Gregariousness E3: Assertiveness E4: Activity E5: Excitement-seeking E6: Positive emotions O: Openness to experience O1: Fantasy O2: Aesthetics O3: Feelings O4: Actions O5: Ideas O6: Values A: Agreeableness A1: Trust A2: Straightforwardness A3: Altruism A4: Compliance A5: Modesty A6: Tender-mindedness C: Conscientiousness C1: Competence C2: Order C3: Dutifulness C4: Achievement striving C5: Self-discipline C6: Deliberation retention in nursing such as autonomy, educational opportunities, job satisfaction and flexible rostering.27 The NEOTM-PI-3 is the most recent version of the NEOTM Personality Inventories26 and was selected to collect and test personality data from the ED nurses according to the FFM of personality.28 The NEOTM-PI-3 assesses the five personality domains and 30 associated facets as shown in Table 1 with their associated codes. The NEOTM-PI-3 is widely used in both research and clinical settings and has undergone robust evaluation demonstrating its reliability and validity.26,28,29 The NEOTM-PI-3 Form S is a 240 item self-report questionnaire with response options ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree which takes approximately 30—40 min to complete. Participants respond to statements such as ‘I ignore a lot of silly little rules’ and ‘I wouldn’t enjoy vacationing in Las Vegas’.30 Responses are weighted from zero to four, with participants blinded to the weighting applied. Data collection Following ethics approval, all 95 registered nurses employed on a permanent basis within the ED at the time of the study were invited to participate. An email from the study investigator was forwarded to eligible nurses by the emergency nurse educator. The email explained the aims of the study and included an invitation to participate. Attached were a participant information sheet and the contact details for the study investigator, available via email or phone to discuss any questions regarding the study. Also included in the email was assurance that participation was voluntary, participants were under no obligation to complete the questionnaire, and that data collected were not identifiable. Staff were also informed about the study at regular departmental meetings by the clinical nurse consultant. Interested participants could elect to complete questionnaires either in their own time, or in allocated work time. They were directed to contact the emergency nurse educators who facilitated distribution of the questionnaires and/or allocation of work time to complete. The clinical nurse consultant and the nurse educator’s were not directly involved in the study. Data were collected over a three month period from July 2012—October 2012. All data were entered into an electronic spreadsheet and data entry quality checked by each study investigator. Data were then imported into SPSS v.2131 for analysis. Data analysis Descriptive statistics were used to summarise responses to the demographic and NEOTM-PI-3 questionnaires. Participant mean scores on the NEOTM-PI-3 were compared with established population norms using a one sample t-test. Due to the expected small number of males in the sample, a gender comparison was not feasible and combined (male and female) population norms were used for the comparison. The alpha level for statistical significance was set at 0.01. Results Demographic profile A total of 72 emergency nurses employed either full time (77.8%) or part time (22.2%) completed the study (76% response rate). Their mean age was 32.4 years (SD 9.0, range 20—58 years) and 80.6% were female. Compared to the general Australian nursing and midwifery workforce, participants in this study were slightly younger (32.4 years vs 38.4 years) and there was a slightly higher proportion of males (19.4% vs 14.1%). This pattern is similar to the demographics of the specialty critical care and emergency nurse workforce across Australia.32 Respondents had an average 10 years (SD 8.6) experience as registered nurses, with 6.9 years (SD 6.3) in emergency nursing. The majority of participants (87.5%) held a Bachelor of Nursing degree and just over half (51.4%) had some form of postgraduate nursing qualifi- cation. Of those with postgraduate qualifications, 30 (81.1%) held a specialty qualification in emergency nursing. Other postgraduate specialty qualifications were in critical care (13.5%), midwifery (8.1%) and nursing management (5.4%). 142 B. Kennedy et al. Table 2 NEO-PI-3 scores for extraversion of emergency nurses compared to population norms. Personality domain and facets Combined population norms mean score (SD) Emergency nurses mean score (SD) Extraversion 110.4 (19.3) 121.8 (19.9) p
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GUIDE FOR APPRAISING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ARTICLES Sections of the research article Address these..