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400967 Health Economics and Comparative Health Systems School of Science & Health¦Learning guide UNIT DETAILS Unit Code: 400967 Unit Name: Health Economics and Comparative Health Systems Level: 7 Contact hours per week: 1 hour lecture 2 hour tutorial STAFF Unit Coordinator and point of first contact Diana Messum Building 24, room G35 , Campbelltown campus (First Point of Contact) Off- campus lecturer, phone or email Phone Diana: (02) 4620 3745 Email: d.messum@uws.edu.au Tutors Kevin Forde Email: k.forde@unsw.edu.au CONSULTATION ARRANGEMENTS Campbelltown Both Kevin and Carla work of campus so contact by email please. To make an appointment with Diana please email. Otherwise available Tuesdays 11-3. Text Book No single text is recommended for this course. Students will be directed to a number of recent publications. Edition: Spring 2014 © Copyright: University of Western Sydney, 2014. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the prior written permission from the Dean of the School of Science & Health. Copyright for acknowledged materials reproduced herein is retained by the copyright holder. All readings in this publication are copied under licence in accordance with Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968. Table of Contents 1. About Health Economics and Comparative Healthcare Systems 1 1.1 An Introduction to this Unit 1 1.2 What is Expected of You 1 1.3 Student responsibilities and conduct 2 1.4 What You can Expect from the Teaching Team 2 1.5 Changes to Unit as a Result of Past Student Feedback 2 2. Learning and Teaching in this Unit 3 2.1 Unit Learning Outcomes 3 2.3 Schedule of Activities 4 2.4 Summary of How Learning Activities Support Achievment of Unit Learning Outcomes 9 2.5 Learning Resources 9 2.6 Other Resources 9 3. Asessment 11 3.1 Assessment summary 11 3.2 Assessment Details 12 Assessment 1: Individual Critical Analysis Report (30%) 12 Assessment 2: Presentation (10% group) 16 Assessment 2b: Economic analysis individual report (10%) 22 Assessment 3: Individual Report 2000 words. Due: October 17, value 50%. Submit via Turnitin from cover page to end of references or appendices. 24 3.3 General Submission Requirements 31 1. Important Information 33 4.1 Links to Policies 33 4.2 Raising concerns 34 Assignment Cover Sheet 35 1. About Health Economics and Comparative Health Systems 1.1 An Introduction to this Unit The unit explores contemporary examples of the role of economics in the organisation, funding and provision of health services. Case examples include; Australia, United States of America, China, India, United Kingdom and other European countries. Students use the principles of economics to assess funding of health with a focus on the interface between economics, ethics and equity in decision making. They also consider economic principles in areas such as, contracting out, health insurance and pharmaceuticals. Students will also consider the impact of capital raising and ways some jurisdictions have approached smoothing equity issues through funding depreciation and capital charging. Students are encouraged to reflect on the challenges and future directions of their own health care systems in the context of the unit components, especially in the areas of resource allocation, opportunity cost and priority setting. 1.2 What is Expected of You Study Load For a 10 credit point unit, you are expected to study 10 hours per week for 14 weeks on that unit. For example, if class time totals 3 hours per week, then you are expected to study a further 7 hours per week outside of class time. It is recommended that you start work on this unit early in session because towards session end workloads will be heavier. Attendance It is strongly recommended that you attend all scheduled learning activities to support your learning. Students with a poor attendance record may find themselves at risk of not passing assessment. Please note: Lateness of more than ten minutes will be considered an absence unless appropriate documentation is provided. Attendance at presentations is compulsory. Online Learning Requirements Unit materials will be made available on the unit’s vUWS (E-Learning) site. You are expected to consult vUWS at least twice a week, as all unit announcements will be made via vUWS. Teaching and learning materials will be regularly updated and posted online. Special Requirements for the Unit Students will be expected to be able to download and read teaching and learning materials posted online at the class website. 1.3 Student responsibilities and conduct Student responsibilities Familiarise yourself with university policies on assessment and examinations. More information including links to the policies can be found at section 4.1 of this Learning Guide Ensure that you understand the requirements, including timetables, for examinations and other assessments tasks. Ensure you read and understand the assessment requirements and note the submission dates, and seek assistance from the lecturer and/or unit coordinator when needed. Notify relevant staff (e.g. lecturer, unit coordinator, disability adviser) as soon as possible prior to, or at the beginning of, the semester to have special requirements accommodated. Submit your own individual and unassisted assessment work, except as otherwise permitted. Cheating, plagiarism, fabrication or falsification of data will be severely dealt with as per policy. Behave ethically and appropriately, avoiding any action or behaviour which would unfairly disadvantage or advantage another student. Where group work is assigned, ensure that every group member has the opportunity to contribute in a meaningful way to the assignment. Student conduct and behaviour Attend all lectures and tutorials – not attending lectures and tutorials is often the main cause of failure and low grades. Respect the needs of other students who are participating in any class activities. Pay attention in lectures and tutorials for key information on examinable material. Do not use mobile phones during the lecture and tutorials and do not have ongoing conversations with fellow students during the lecture or if another student is presenting work in the tutorials. Please use electronic devices for taking notes and other class activities, not surfing the net or checking email. 1.4 What You can Expect from the Teaching Team Academic staff carry out their teaching responsibilities under the authority of the Dean of the School of Science & Health. The responsibilities of staff are outlined in the following table. Staff responsibilities Assess students’ work fairly, objectively and consistently and when in doubt consult with the unit coordinator or Director of Academic Program. Provide students with appropriate, helpful and explanatory feedback on all work submitted for assessment. Make reasonable accommodation (e.g. length of time to complete) in assessment tasks and examinations for students with special requirements and to seek assistance from the Disability Advisor and Counsellor where appropriate and needed. Ensure deadlines for the submission of examination papers to the Academic Registrar are met. Immediately report any issues or concerns related to student academic and non-academic misconduct to the Director of Academic Program. 1.5 Changes to Unit as a Result of Past Student Feedback The focus of the unit changes to keep contemporary with changes in for example the Affordable Health Care Act in the US and changes to health funding in Australia. 2. Learning and Teaching in this Unit 2.1 Unit Learning Outcomes Becoming a professional in this field requires knowledge, skills, qualities that are relevant to the unit. This unit aims to introduce concepts of health economics. Upon successfully completing this unit, you should be able to: 1 Critically review and evaluate the interface between economics, ethics and equity in decision making within their own and other health systems. 2 Examine and assess the use of economic tools of analysis within and between health services. 3 Consider and assess the use of economic principles in the organisation of health services. 4 Critically examine and evaluate contemporary examples of the role of economics in the organisation, funding and provision of health services. 5 Consider and reflect on the challenges and future direction of health professionals and health systems in the context of present and future approaches to health economics. 2.3 Schedule of Activities Week starting Lecture Tutorial Independent Reading & Activities Assessments Assessment items Feedback [Mode] 1 28/7 What is Economics’? What are the comparative health system issues? Are these economic issues? Discussion of unit outline seminar expectations and requirements for assessment tasks Finkler, S. A., Kovner C. T. and Jones C. B. (2013) Financial Management for Nurse Managers and Executives (4th. Ed.). St Louis: Saunders Elsevier, p. 56-70 Slembeck’s 10 Principles. Available from: http://www.slembeck.ch/principles.html World Health Report (2010), Health System Financing – the Path to universal coverage, Geneva: World Health Organisation. Available: http://www.who.int/whr/2010/en/index.html 2 4/8 Nature and characteristics of ‘health care’ as a commodity – micro economics In small groups, identify and discuss the main challenges health economics has in having anything credible to say about health care delivery and the allocation of health resources. Readings: Report of WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (2001) A Commission Examining the Interrelations Among Investments in Health, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. Available: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/9241590092.pdf 3 11/8 Economics and the Health Workforce Present and future roles of health professionals, health care and health services within health care systems Consider the economic factors that influence the health workforce. Consider also the effects of migration on the supply of health workers. What other factors may be at work? World Health Organization. (2010). The World Health Report 2010 –Financing for Universal Coverage. Geneva: World Health Organization Available: http://www.who.int/whr/2010/whr10_en.pdf Davies, C. (2004) The Future Health Workforce. NY: Palgrave Macmillan Health Workforce Australia (2013), Australia’s Health Workforce Series – Nurses in Focus, Health Workforce Australia: Adelaide. Available: https://www.hwa.gov.au/sites/uploads/Nurses-in-Focus-FINAL.pdf Food and Health Bureau (2012) Strategic Review on Healthcare Manpower Planning and Professional Development LC Paper No. CB (2)1700/11-12(01). Available: http://www.hpdo.gov.hk/en/srrelevantpapers.html 4 18/8 Economic evaluation of health care Critical review the use of cost-utility analysis (CUA) and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) as tools of economic appraisal. Critical review the use of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) as a tool of economic appraisal. Discuss the use of CBA in health care /service planning/evaluation. Nord, E. (1999) Cost-value Analysis in Health Care: Making Sense out of QALYs Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. McCulloch ,D. (2003) Valuing Health in Practice: Priorities, QALYs, and Choice Burlington, VT: Ashgate. Available: http://www.nice.org.uk/newsroom/features/measuringeffectivenessandcosteffectivenesstheqaly.jsp Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing (2002) Return on investment in needle and syringe programs in Australia: Report http://www.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/illicit-pubs-needle-return-1-rep-toc~illicit-pubs-needle-return-1-rep-5~illicit-pubs-needle-return-1-rep-5-2 National Institute for Health Care Excellence (2010) Measuring Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness: the QALY Report 1 due 22nd August Feedback via gardemark 5 25/8 Activity based funding and Cost Containment Strategies Does a casemix based payment system sent a price signal to health managers? Independent Hospital Pricing Authority (2012) The Pricing Framework for Australian Public Hospital Services. Available: http://www.ihpa.gov.au/internet/ihpa/publishing.nsf/content/CA25794400122452CA257B4600812D0E/$File/PricingFramework.pdf Duckett S. (2013) Performance management using ABF, Sydney: IHPA. Available from: http://www.abfconference2013.com/program.html Williams, J. (2010) Innovative approaches to cost containment Healthcare Leadership Review, 29(5): 7-8. Collins, S.R., Nuzum, R., Rustgi, S., Mika, S., Schoen, C. and Davis, K. (2009) How Health Care Reform Can Lower the Costs of Insurance Administration. Retrieved July 20, 2012. Available:: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/Publications/Issue-Briefs/2009/Jul/How-Health-Care-Reform-Can-Lower-the-Costs-of-Insurance-Administration.aspx Brandao de Souza, L. (2009) Trends and approaches in lean healthcare. Leadership in Health Services, 22(2), 121-139. doi 10.1108/17511870910953788 Edwards, N. (2012) Can lean redesign stick in health care? London: The King’s Fund. Available: http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/blog/2012/06/can-lean-redesign-stick-health-care 6 1/9 Health insurance and health services Critically review Ho’s (2001:156) “taxonomy of alternative funding options” Having had the semester to think about it, how would you answer the question raised by the Hong Kong Food and Health Bureau – What is the best option for Hong Kong? Ho, L. (2001) Health care funding and delivery in Hong Kong: what should be done? Hong Kong Medical Journal, No. 2. Food and Health Bureau Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2008) Your Health Your Life Healthcare Reform Consultation Document. Available: http://www.fhb.gov.hk/beStrong/files/consultation/Condochealth_full_eng.pdf 7 8/9 On line quiz Group meetings to discuss presentation 8 15/9 Group meetings to discuss presentation 9 22/9 Intersession Break 10 29/9 Student presentations on different healthcare systems 11 6/10 Student presentations on different healthcare systems 12 13/10 Student presentations on different healthcare systems Asssignment 2 due Friday 17th October Feedback via Grademark 13 20/10 Student presentations on different healthcare systems 14 27/10 Student presentations Review of course Feedback via grademark Additional readings on economic evaluation of healthcare: Muennig, P. (2008) Cost Effectiveness Analysis in Health : Available: http://uws.aquabrowser.com/?q=Cost+effectiveness+%2Bhealth&x=11&y=20 WHO (2003) Guide to Cost Effectiveness Analysis Available from: http://www.who.int/choice/publications/p_2003_generalised_cea.pdf Drummond, M., Sculpher, M., Torrence, G., O’Brien, B. and Stoddard, G. (2005) Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes (3rd Ed.) Oxford: Oxford University Press. European Commission (2008) Guide to Cost Benefit Analysis http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/guides/cost/guide2008_en.pdf 2.4 Summary of How Learning Activities Support Achievment of Unit Learning Outcomes UNIT LEARNING OUTCOMES LEARNING ACTIVITIES ASESSMENT ACTIVITIES 1 1-5 Participation in tutorial activities Assessment of tutorial participation 2 2-3 Presentation on an issue related to health economics Assessment of presentation material and presentation skills. 3 1-4 Preparation of a report which critically analyses an issue from the perspective of health economics. Assessment of the quality of the document (language fluency, editing, spelling) and of contents (clarity and accuracy in the presentation) 4 1-5 Preparation of a report on a current health economics issue. Assessment of the quality of the document (language fluency, editing, spelling) and of the document contents (understanding and articulation of the issues, integration of the literature into a coherent analysis of the chosen issue). 2.5 Learning Resources Resources How to Engage with the Resources Lectures/Textbooks/Reading List Reading List • University of Western Sydney (2012) American Psychological Association Referencing Style Guide. Campbelltown: UWS. Available from: http://library.uws.edu.au/FILES/cite_APA.pdf • For other readings see the references listed for each seminar. 2.6 Other Resources University life Find out about life outside the lecture theatre – news and events, services and facilities, career information and more! http://www.uws.edu.au/currentstudents/current_students/services_and_facilities E-Learning Check your vUWS sites regularly for unit announcements and to keep up with online discussions. If you do not have access to vUWS please contact e-learning on https://vuws.uws.edu.au/ Disability Service Students with a disability should visit: http://www.uws.edu.au/currentstudents/current_students/getting_help/disability_services Course and unit rules This site provides information on pre-requisites, co-requisites and other matters concerning how your course is structured. http://www.uws.edu.au/currentstudents/current_students/managing_your_study/enrolment/course_and_unit_rules Student Learning Unit The Student Learning Unit (SLU) can offer you assistance in writing good exam essays. Visit: http://www.uws.edu.au/campuses_structure/cas/services_facilities/slu Policies This site includes the full details of policies that apply to you as a UWS student. http://www.uws.edu.au/policies/a-z 3. Asessment 3.1 Assessment summary There are three assessment items in this unit designed to enable you to demonstrate that you have achieved the unit learning outcomes. Completion and submission of all assessment items at the required time and required academic standard are necessary to receive a final mark in the unit. Achievement of at least 50% overall is required to pass this unit. Participation in tutorials will be considered as an essential requirement for the course. ASSESSMENT ITEM DUE DATE WEIGHTING ULOs FEEDBACK MODE DATE 1 Report Week 4 Friday 22nd August 30% 1-3 Returned via Grademark Normally within 2 weeks 2 Presentation Discussion paper (day before presentation) Oral presentation (day of presentation) 10% [written] 10% [oral] 1-4 General comments in lecture Normally within 2 weeks 3 Report Week 13 Friday 17th October 50% 1-4 Returned via Grademark Normally within 2 weeks Note: Results may be moderated before you receive your results. Moderation is a process whereby the unit coordinator regulates the marking of individual markers to achieve consistency in the application of unit objectives, performance standards and marking criteria. Marks for an individual piece of assessment will not be changed after you have your results. You should note that, consistent with the Criteria and Standards Based Assessment policy, the final marks for the cohort may also be adjusted if marks are very high or low or there are inconsistencies between groups. 3.2 Assessment Details Assessment 1:Individual Critical Analysis Report (30% Critical Analysis Paper: 1500 words – this is a strict word limit. There will be penalties for exceeding the word limit. Due: Friday 22nd August Value: 30%. Submit via Turnitin with cover page and references and/or appendices. Rationale The major focus of this report is to promote critical reading and economic analysis skills. This includes developing critical analysis skills i.e. identifying short comings, limitations and what works well, and questioning of how things are done from an economic perspective. Deeper learning also includes the ability to extrapolate, extend and apply principles and theory based on the evidence. Students have to examine recent national and international literature. Quality of writing skills is also being assessed to help improve competency, current, past or future. Task One important question in health economics is: what is the most efficient way to deliver health care services? Recently some doctors claimed that millions of dollars are wasted on unnecessary hospital stays for conditions that could be treated in patients’ homes. 1. What do you see as being the main cost advantages of a ‘hospital in the home’ program? 2. How important is ‘hospital in the home’ in Australia and other countries – ie what percentage of total hospital admissions are accounted for by ‘hospital in the home’ patients. 3. Outline three health services that could be provided in the home rather than in a traditional hospital? 4. Can you see any disadvantages of such a program? 5. Overall, do you think such a program could result in better health outcomes? Criteria You will be assessed on the following: • Proof reading of text to ensure accuracy of grammar, spelling and punctuation. • Writing clearly and in an appropriate formal style for an academic report. • Adequately and appropriately covering the material in the report. Resources Please note that I have deliberately not given any references for this question. Part of the assignment task is for you to find your own references and how well you do this will contribute to your mark for this assignment. Also as this is an economics course you should focus on the economic – not medical – aspects of these issues. Marking rubric for first assignment Criteria Unsatisfactory Pass Credit Distinction High Distinction Proof read text to ensure accuracy of grammar, spelling and punctuation. Writes clearly and in an appropriate style for an academic report. Language errors detract significantly from meaning. Abbreviations not defined. Little evidence of proof reading or use of grammar and spell check. Writing is verbose, convoluted or difficult to follow, or informal eg uses first person and/or subjective style used eg use of slang such as isn’t, don’t etc or little use of relevant technical language and/or frequent us of unqualified assertions. Fails to refer to, accurately explain or interpret and integrate visual material eg graphs, etc used in text. Some language errors interfere with meaning. Writing generally clear may not be succinct, may use informal or subjective style, sometimes uses technical language and may qualify some assertions. Few language errors. Writing is clear and succinct but may revert to informal or subjective style, sometimes uses technical language and may qualify some assertions. Refers to and attempts to explain visual materials used but not always accurate in interpretation. Very few errors. Writing is clear and succinct, with logical flow, does not revert to informal or subjective style, mostly uses technical language and qualifies most assertions. Good reference to, accurate explanation of and integration of visuals. No errors. Writing is clear, succinct, and consistently formal and objective in style, using technical language and qualifies assertions. Consistent and accurate reference to, explanation of and integration of visual materials into text. Marks /10 0 5 7 8 10 Identify features of ethical scholarship and academic integrity for citations in-text. Does not use referencing and citations to identify some or all sources used in assessment. Correct in-text citation format for less than 50% of sources eg citations only given at end of sentences or paragraphs rather than inserted at earliest opportunity; author and year or report title and year not integrated into sentences. Page reference missed for quotations and/or excessive quoting eg more than 5%. Incorrect use of et al. Personal communications incorrectly cited. Sources not provided for tables, graphs etc. which includes author(s), or report title, year and page. Correct in-text citation. Correct in-text citation. Correct in-text citation. Correct in-text citation. Marks /5 0 2.5 3 4 5 Demonstrate ability to critically analyse and discuss current literature eg identifies strengths and weaknesses of the approaches taken, with evidence of original thought. Descriptive discussion of current literature. Little attempt, if any to integrate and interpret information, tendency to make claims, little attempt to identify strengths and weaknesses. Descriptive discussion, some attempt to identify strengths and weaknesses, based on interpreted information. Analytical (rather than descriptive) interpretation Appropriate interpretation and integration of evidence to strengths and weaknesses Analytical and accurate analysis with good evidence base. Strong critical analysis skills demonstrated, with excellent evidence base to support discussion. Marks /12 0 6 8 10 12 Use of report format No executive summary or abstract only, and/or no contents page and/or numbered headings in text. Formatting errors eg inaccurate formatting of tables, graphs etc, and headings or none included. No spacing between paragraphs. Used underlining instead of bold. Used familiarity and /or first person. ES may cover some key points only. Poorly presented contents page which may not match headings in text. Other formatting errors. First person errors. Good focus on key points in ES. Good use of report format with some errors only eg pagination errors or other formatting errors. ES covers all main points. Document well formatted with few errors. ES covers all main points. Document professionally presented. Marks /3 0 0.5 1 2 3 Assessment 2: Group Presentation (10% presentation mark, 10% individual report mark) Due Date: weeks 11-14 Presentation Length: 30 Minutes Submission Details: A copy of the presentation listing members of the group (with a coversheet) and any additional material should be submitted to the tutor for assessment and return. Feedback Details: Tutor and peer feedback will be provided at the end of the presentation. Tutors will review the material submitted and return a marked copy to the student. Rationale The purpose of this assessment is to enable students to gain knowledge of different healthcare systems. It enables the class to cover a wide range of issues relating to the financing and delivery of health services in different countries. Group presentation 10% At the first seminar, students will be randomly allocated to teams to prepare a presentation on a healthcare system: each group will be allocated a different country to analyse. Each team is required to develop an oral presentation for the allocated time, with each student presenting a section of the required content. Preparation for this part of the assessment task should be finalised at least one week before the due date. Be careful to reference all sources cited in any presentation with author(s) or report title, year and page. If you have any difficulty in preparing for the assessment task you will need to contact the lecturer via email at least one week before the seminar and discuss the problem/s so that solutions can be reached well before your presentation. Task Description For the allocated country address the following: • Identify three important health problems facing the country. Please supply data to support your choice of problems. • How is healthcare funded and delivered in the country? • Identify any areas in the country, or groups of people within the country, where access to healthcare is less than ideal. That is, are health resources allocated relatively equally through the country and to all its citizens? Explain why this has occurred. • Would you be happy to be a patient in this country’s healthcare system? Explain why or why not. • Make recommendations at least four, to improve this country’s healthcare system. In order to meet the requirements of the assessment task and maximise learning outcomes and capabilities, each presenter should: • To the best of their ability work effectively and co-operatively in the team in areas such as, attending meetings, communicating with the team through the vUWS site, the distribution and completion of tasks and the presentation; • Focus on the chosen healthcare system and provoke discussion amongst the seminar group on specific issues and concerns that relate to this country. • Workshop the presentation with the seminar group through the use of adult learning methods, such as, discussion questions aimed at provoking debate; sharing and discussing of the ideas; developing an interesting and thought provoking case study or scenario for small and large group discussion; building the presentation around a role play/debate and subsequent discussion. • You must encourage small group discussion and the active participation of the seminar group throughout the presentation. At no time should any presenter stand and talk to the group for any length of time. The introduction and conclusion to the presentation should be as short as possible and take no more than five minutes. • The assessment task requires adult learning methods and the aim of the presentation is to develop these capabilities. • Use overheads where they assist in the generation of discussion, for example, cartoon captions, pictures, brief quotes, sayings, statistical data and short/brief dot points. • Presentations should last for 30 minutes only. • Presentation will start at the beginning of the session. The presentation will be followed by general discussion on any other interest areas that arise out of the presentation. Criteria You will be assessed on the following: • Oral communication skills: clear and concise, logical order, engaging the audience with points made, eye contact, pace, facial expression, body language, modulated voice, clearly heard, reliance on cue cards and power point, not reading from notes, questioning and responsive to questions. • Observing time limit. • Visual presentation: argument (rationale) visually presented and logically ordered e.g. background, topics, conclusions), visually consistent, clear and to the point, correct grammar and spelling, easy to read eg font 20 minimum, correct acknowledgement of all sourced e.g. page ref for quotes and sources under table/ graphs etc, use of handouts and other props. • Conceptual (thinking) skills e.g. shows how experience relates to management theory: o With evidence referenced to appropriate e-journal. o Accurate content knowledge relevant and up to date ie from 2009 onward. o Evaluated information with recommendations for change. All members of the group will be individually assessed for the presentation. In the past it has been clear that some group members have not contributed to the presentation in a meaningful way and they received a low mark – or no mark at all. Resources The task will be discussed in tutorials before the presentations begin. Students will be taken through the assessment criteria and given guidance on the presentation in tutorials. There are numerous websites that have useful information on world healthcare systems that can help you with material for your presentations. Some of the better ones are: 1. The site of The European Observatory on Healthcare Systems where you can find detailed information on selected countries: http://www.euro.who.int/observatory 2. The Commonwealth Fund. Below is a link to a comparison of the impact of private health insurance on people in 11 countries: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/Content/Publications/In-the-Literature/2010/Nov/How-Health-Insurance-Design-Access-Care-Costs.aspx 3. The WHO home page. Click on “countries” or “health topics” to begin your search for information: http://www.who.int/ 4. The OECD website – on the left hand side of the home page click on “By Topic” to find information on health: http://www.oecd.org 5. Access to the WHO’s World Health Reports: http://www.who.int/whr/en/ 6. The Pan American Health Organization: http://www.paho.org/ 7. USAID Health Systems 20/20 database: http://healthsystems2020.healthsystemsdatabase.org/ 8. HLSP Institute: http://www.hlspinstitute.org/healthsystems/ 9. “FRONTLINE: Sick around the world.” PBS. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/sickaroundtheworld/view/main.html 10. Kaiser Family Foundation: http://www.globalhealthfacts.org Rubric Assessment 2a: Group presentation Criteria Unsatisfactory Pass Credit Distinction High Distinction Oral communication skills Not clear and to the point and /or logically sequenced and/ or pitched to the audience and/ or questioning/ responsive to questions and/ or aimed at engaging discussion Heavy dependence on reading from notes /cue cards/Power Point slides. Talks to the projection rather than the audience. Over time. Clear and to the point. Logically sequenced. Talks to the projection and does not face the audience. Audience not engaged. Questions not answered to satisfaction of audience. Moderate dependence on reading from notes/cue cards/Power Point slides. Over time. Clear and to the point. Logically sequenced with comprehensive explanations and transition from point to point. Talks to the audience, eye contact occurs, consistent engagement throughout. Questioning and responsive to questions. Aimed at engaging discussion. Little reliance on reading from notes/cue card/Power Point slides. Keeps to time limit. Clear and to the point. Logically sequenced with thought provoking explanations and concise transition from point to point. Talks to the audience, stimulating engagement throughout. Knowledgeable questioning and responses to questions. Aimed at provoking discussion. Minimal reliance on reading from notes/cue cards/Power Point slides. Keeps to time limit. Clear and to the point. Logically sequenced with insightful explanations and concise transition from point to point. Flexible and adapting to the audience as issues raised. Perceptive, questioning and insightful responses to questions. Aimed at provoking discussion. Elaborates beyond the text of Power Points. No reliance on reading from notes/cue cards/ PowerPoint slides. Keeps to time limit. Marks /3 0 1 2 3 3 Visual presentation No argument presented and/or logical order and/or not visually consistent, readable, brief clear and to the point and/or not all sources/direct quotes cited correctly and/or no evidence of spell/grammar check. Hard to read. No use of handouts and other props. Argument visually presented and/or logically ordered. Visually consistent, readable, brief, clear and to the point. Correct citing of sources and direct quotes. Spelling and grammar correct. Mostly easy to read. Little use of handouts and other props. Argument comprehensive, logically and visually thoroughly developed. Visually enhanced with the use of illustrations, captions, cartoons and/or graphics. Correct citing of all sources and direct quotes. Easy to read. Spelling and grammar correct. Some use of handouts and props. Argument thought provoking, logically and visually succinctly developed. Visually enhanced and professional with the use of illustrations, captions, cartoons and/or graphics. Correct citing of all sources and direct quotes. Spelling and grammar correct. Easy to read. Good use of handouts and props. Argument insightful, logically and visually succinctly developed. Visually enhanced, professional with the use of original ideas, illustrations, captions, cartoons and/or graphics that broaden understanding of the topic/question. Good use of handouts and props. Correct citing of all sources and direct quotes. Spelling and grammar correct. Marks /4 0 1 2 3 4 Conceptual (thinking) skills Little attempt to use current information to answer the questions in the task. Presentation was mostly irrelevant to the questions asked. Some information out of date or missing. Limited attempt at answering the questions. Critical analysis attempted and recommendations Information presented was up to date but with limited analysis of how the information related to the questions asked. Some recommendations made Information on health issues was up to date and groups who were not served well by the healthcare system were clearly identified. Did not comment on whether they would like to be a patient in this country. Perceptive linking of data and health issues. Groups not well served by the healthcare system clearly identified. Comprehensive view of the patient outcomes in the country. Good recommendations for change. Marks /3 0 1 2 3 3 Assessment 2b: Individual report on presentation (10%) Due Date: the same date as the group presentation on the topic allocated Length: 500 Words Submission Details: Through Turnitin Feedback Details: Feedback via GradeMark. Rationale This assignment is designed to show each student understands the issues facing the healthcare system on which the group presented. Task Each student is required to submit a 500 word paper on their own thoughts on the presentation. This submission must be written individually and there is to be no collaboration in this part of the assessment. You are referred to UWS policies on academic misconduct, in particular, cheating. This part of the assessment is to be submitted electronically via Turnitin. It will be marked and returned to you electronically. Criteria You will be assessed on the following: o Proof reading text to ensure accuracy of grammar, spelling and punctuation. o Writing clearly and in an appropriate style for an academic report. o Development of the analysis of the issues facing the healthcare system analysed. o Ability to make recommendations for improvements showing analysis skills. Rubric Assessment 2b: Healthcare system individual written report Criteria Unsatisfactory Pass Credit Distinction High Distinction Proof read text to ensure accuracy of grammar, spelling and punctuation. Write clearly and in an appropriate style for an academic report. Numerous spelling, grammatical and/or punctuation errors. Unreadable document with incoherent expression. Few spelling, grammatical and/or punctuation errors. Difficult to read, but able to be interpreted. Inappropriate style eg non-English phrasing or slang. Over the word limit No spelling, grammatical and/or punctuation errors. Several issues of fluency or style of presentation. Within the word limit. No spelling, grammatical and/or punctuation errors. Few issues of fluency or style of presentation. Within the word limit. No spelling, grammatical and/or punctuation errors. Fluently written document in an academic style of presentation. Within the word limit. Marks /5 0 3 5 5 5 Applied material covered in class and ability to critically analyse Little relationship between the materials covered in class and the submission. Significant gaps but covering at least 50% of the class material in an analytical way. Some material missing, some critical analysis. Little material missing and good critical analysis. All material included and strong analytical skills shown Marks /10 0 5 6 8 10 Assessment 3: Individual Health Economics Report Due Date: Friday October 17 5pm. Length: 2000 words. This is a strict word limit. Penalties will apply for exceeding the word limit. Submission Details: Through Turnitin Feedback Details: Feedback via Grade mark. Students will be expected to apply the feedback to subsequent units in their course. Rationale The purpose of this assessment is to enable each student to apply the knowledge that has been developed during the semester in the economic consideration of an important health service topic area. It enables the student to explore in more detail an area of economic interest. Task Consider ONE only of the following four topics. Make use of the online library research facilities! You must use the report format for this assignment. The word limit is a strict limit – ie you cannot go over 2000 words. If you do then penalties will apply. Apart from in-text referencing and your list of references, ALL other words count towards your word count. This means that words in tables count towards your word count. Your assignment must be correctly referenced. Poor or non-existent referencing will be heavily penalised. Where possible support your arguments with specific facts. For example, say “this resulted in an increase in spending by 10% over the 2007-2010 period”, NOT ‘this resulted in an increase in spending”. I have deliberately not given any references for these topics – part of the marking criteria relates to your research ability and your ability to find relevant and up-to-date references. Question 1 Activity based funding for hospitals In an August 2007 news release, Canadian Doctors for Medicare warned that an “over-dependence on activity-based payments would also erode hospitals’ commitment to providing a full range of services to all patients and reduce efficiency through higher administrative costs.” What are the economic reasons for the Australian government introducing activity based funding (ABF) to Australian Public Hospitals in 2012? Do you agree with the criticisms of this method of funding made by Canadian Doctors? Overall, do you think that ABF is an improvement on the way hospitals were funded in Australia? Explain your reasons. OR Question 2 Health workforce From 1 November 2010 nurse practitioners and midwives have been able to access the Medicare Benefits Schedule and provide Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme medicines in the community. Previously, nurse practitioners could provide advanced level care but because of their lack of access to the MBS and PBS this severely limited roles outside the hospital setting. Why has the government done this? Or, perhaps, why has it taken so long for the government to do this? OR Question 4 The economics of breastfeeding Although much research still is needed in this area, evidence suggests that a significant return on investment is likely with breastfeeding promotion. What do you think? Is there a strong economic case against breastfeeding? Or is there a strong economic case for breastfeeding? Criteria You will be assessed on the following: • Report Format use and length. • An executive summary. • Contents page matching section headings in text, with page numbering. • Introduction. • Contents in the body of the report. • Edited for spelling, grammar and language fluency. • Citation and referencing – evidence of undertaking research on the topic. • Construction of paragraphs – written in a formal academic style. • Contents relevant to the subject. • Topic has been covered adequately. Ensure you have created a list of references not a bibliography. Assignments must be submitted electronically via Turnitin. Students are advised to read the print view version which highlights sources and does not affect formatting. This encourages students to actually read the Turnitin report. (At academic misconduct interviews it is often found that the report has not been read.) You may submit more than once to Turnitin right up to the due date/time. It is important to ensure that all sources are correctly acknowledged eg author and year plus quotation marks must be used when citing words of others ie for all quotes. Also quotations should be rarely used eg 5% of the assignment – it is preferable to summarise and use your own words. Assignments submitted must include a copy of the Assignment Cover Sheet, but a signature is not required. Please note that students are not permitted to share assignment materials electronically or hard copy or with current or past or future students or show their work to other students because this is considered collusion. Assignments must be all your own work. Rubric Health Economics Report Marking Rubric Criteria Unsatisfactory Pass Credit Distinction High Distinction Use of report format There is no executive summary, executive summary resembles an abstract ie talks about what you did not what you found or executive summary does not cover key findings. Refs omitted. No Contents Page (CP). Inaccurate formatting of tables, graphs etc., and headings or none included, no spacing between paragraphs and used underlining instead of bold. Exceeds word limit- extra words not marked. Executive summary covers some key findings. Refs mostly included. CP has several errors. Attempt to follow report format, with some inconsistencies throughout the report. Meets word limit. Executive summary covers most key findings. All refs included. No errors in CP. Follows report format, with minor errors. Executive summary covers all key findings. All refs included. No errors in CP. Good use of RF. Concise executive summary covers all key findings. All refs included. No errors in CP. Professional use of RF. Marks /8 0 4 6 7 8 Citation and referencing Follows APA style and references integrated into text. Does not use referencing and citations to identify some or all sources used in assessment. Incorrect in-text citation format e.g. citations only given at end of sentences or paragraphs; author and year or report title and year not integrated into sentences. Page reference missed for quotations or excessive quoting i.e. over 5%. Incorrect use of et al. Personal communications incorrectly cited. Sources not provided for tables, graphs etc. which includes author(s), or report title, year and page. APA referencing format not used or used with major errors e.g. placement of publisher, format for chapters in edited books, format for web references or citation to search engine rather than actual journal or web site. List not in alpha order and/or may include references not used in text. References inadequate and frequent errors in referencing style Correct citation format for 50% of sources; Uses quotes more than 4% but less than 5%; References provided but not according to APA style. Some references missing or incorrect or cited refs not used in text. Correct citation format for 65% of sources; Uses minimal quoting of less than 2%. References provided to support most claims but APA style used inconsistently. Correct citation format for 75% of sources; Uses minimal quoting of less than 2%. References provided to support claims and references consistently follow APA style. Correct citation format for all sources; Uses minimal quoting of less than 2%. Referencing consistent, thorough and well used to support claims. Marks/ 7 0 3.5 5 6 7 Language use Writes in academic style with correct spelling, grammar and punctuation. Paragraphs poorly constructed / confusing. Purpose of paragraphs difficult to determine. Paragraphs have no clear point Non-conventional spelling, punctuation and grammar interfere with meaning Paragraphs adequately constructed. Topic sentence to indicate purpose of paragraph sometimes missing and contents of paragraph sometimes relate remotely to the topic. Little evidence of proof-reading. Some errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar but they do not interfere with meaning Paragraphs mostly well- constructed, usually including topic sentence. Information in the paragraph sometimes varies from topic. Text proof read with minor errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar and typos. Paragraphs well-constructed, usually including topic sentence. Information in the paragraph all related to one topic. Proof-read, legible presentation of text with conventional spelling, grammar and punctuation, though with few typos. Paragraphs are consistently very well constructed with a topic sentence clearly signposting the content of the paragraph and information in the paragraph all related to the one topic. Proof-read, legible presentation of text with conventional spelling, grammar and punctuation. Marks /5 0 2.5 3 4 5 Introduction provides issue definition, background to the paper and an outline of the ensuing paragraphs. Introduction provides no or inaccurate issue definition, little or vague background information, no or a jumble outline of ensuing paragraphs. Introduction provides issue definition, some background information, and an outline of ensuing paragraphs, maybe with lack of clarity in places. Introduction provides issue definition, adequate background information, and an outline of ensuing paragraphs. Introduction provides a clear issue definition, thorough background information, and a brief outline of the ensuing paragraphs. Introduction provides a concise issue definition, comprehensive background information, and a clear outline of the ensuing paragraphs. Marks/5 0 2.5 3 4 5 Academic content: Identifies strengths and weaknesses of the approaches taken; further develops ideas and practices Descriptive discussion of the issue, little attempt to identify strengths and weaknesses. No or inappropriate recommendations. Little if any attempt to develop ideas and practices. Less than ten references used to support argument. Descriptive discussion of current practices, some attempt to identify strengths and weaknesses, based on interpreted information. May include some inappropriate recs or miss some recommendations. Uses min 10 refs to support argument. Analytical (rather than descriptive) interpretation of current practices. Appropriate interpretation and integration of evidence to strengths and weaknesses. Missed some recs. Good attempt to develop original ideas and practices. Uses more than ten refs to support argument. Analytical and accurate analysis of current practices, with good evidence base appropriate recs. Well developed and original ideas and practices. Uses more than ten recent, refereed sources to support argument. Critical analysis skills demonstrated, with excellent evidence base to support excellent recs and well thought out, original ideas. Uses more than ten recent, refereed sources to support argument. Marks/25 0 13 16 19 25 3.3 General Submission Requirements Submission All assignments must be submitted by the specified due date and time, using a completed and signed Assignment Cover Sheet provided in the last page of this document. Complete your assignment, attach a completed and signed Assignment Cover Sheet, and follow the individual assessment items instructions on how to submit. Late Submission If you submit a late assessment, without receiving approval for an extension of time, (see next item), you will be penalised by 10% per day for up to 10 days. In other words, marks equal to 10% of the assignment’s weight will be deducted from the mark awarded. For example, if the highest mark possible is 50, 5 marks will be deducted from your awarded mark for each late day. Saturday and Sunday each count as one calendar day. Assessments will not be accepted after the marked assessment task has been returned to students This is consistent with Clause 50 of the University of Western Sydney’s Assessment Policy – Criteria and Standards-Based Assessment. Extension of Due Date for Submission Extensions are only granted in exceptional circumstances. To apply for an extension of time: Locate an application form via the UWS homepage or copy the following link: http://www.uws.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/118273/Request_for_Extension_RO_00205_0112.pdf Application forms must be submitted to the Co-ordinator Requests for extension should be made no later than 3 working days before the due date of an assignment or other assessment item including web-based quizzes Appropriate, supporting documentation must be submitted with the application An application for an extension does not automatically mean that an extension will be approved Assessments will not be accepted after the marked assessment task has been returned to students Resubmission Resubmission of assessment items will not normally be granted if requested Application for Special Consideration It is strongly recommended that you attend all scheduled learning activities to support your learning. If you have suffered misadventure, illness, or you have experienced exceptional circumstances that have prevented your attendance at class or your completion and submission of assessment tasks you may need to apply for Special Consideration via the UWS website http://www.uws.edu.au/currentstudents/current_students/services_and_facilities/special_consideration2 or the Student Centre. Special Consideration is not automatically granted. It is your responsibility to ensure that any missed content has been covered. Your lecturer will give you more information on how this must be done. 1. Important Information 4.1 Links to Policies The University has a number of policies that relate to teaching and learning. Important policies affecting students include: ? Assessment Policy ? Bullying Prevention Policy and Guidelines ? Enrolment Policy (includes a section on the UWS Student Email Account) ? Examinations Policy ? Misconduct – Student Academic Misconduct Policy (see extract below) ? Misconduct – Student Non-academic Misconduct Policy (see extract below) ? Review of Grade Policy ? Sexual Harassment Prevention Policy ? Special Consideration Policy ? Teaching and Learning – Fundamental Code There are two policies that relate to misconduct – academic and non-academic misconduct. Breaches of these policies can have very serious consequences. It is essential that you are familiar with these policies and how to avoid misconduct of any type. What is academic misconduct? Academic misconduct may involve plagiarism, collusion or cheating. Plagiarism involves submitting or presenting work in a unit as if it were the student’s own work when, in fact, it was not. Collusion includes inciting, assisting, facilitating, concealing or being involved in plagiarism, cheating or other academic misconduct with others. Cheating includes dishonest conduct (or attempted dishonest conduct) in exams. For the full definition of academic misconduct and the consequences of such behaviour, you are advised to read the Misconduct – Student Academic Misconduct Policy in its entirety (refer to http://policies.uws.edu.au/view.current.php?id=00051). There are many resources to help you avoid academic misconduct. Library staff can help you with referencing and the Student Learning Unit can assist with academic writing and plagiarism. If you are unsure about any of your work you should also ask your tutor or lecturer for advice and feedback. The University also has text matching software (called Turnitin) which can help you check to see if your work might have problems. You can access Turnitin on the vUWS site for this unit. What is non-academic misconduct? Non-academic misconduct includes unlawful activities and crimes, falsifying documents (like a medical certificate or academic records), harassing other students (or staff), stealing or damaging university property (like library books or computers) and disrupting other students or staff. These are just some of the types of non-academic misconduct and while these things are rare they do happen. If you believe you have been the victim of non-academic misconduct or you are aware of any academic misconduct it is very important that you report it. You should report all matters of non-academic misconduct directly to the Dean or the head of the relevant section of the University. For example, you can report matters to the Manager of Security on your campus or to the Campus Provost or the Dean of your school. You must do this in writing. You may write to the Dean on g.kolt@uws.edu.au. 4.2 Raising concerns If you have a concern about this unit please contact your lecturer or tutor in the first instance. If the matter is not resolved, then you may contact the unit coordinator (see inside front cover). If you would prefer to speak to someone else, you are advised to contact the Director of Academic Program responsible for this unit. Please note the Director of Academic Program may refer your concern to a delegate to investigate and to respond to you. The University also has a confidential Complaints Resolution Unit (see link below). You may contact this unit of the University at any time; however, we would appreciate the opportunity to resolve the complaint in the first instance. http://www.uws.edu.au/about_uws/uws/governance/complaints_management_and_resolution Assignment Cover Sheet School of Science & Health Student Information Name: Number: Contact Number (ie: Mobile) Campus enrolment: Unit Information Unit Name: Health Economics and Comparative Health Systems Unit Number: 400567 Lecturer: Kevin Forde Assessment Information Title of assignment: Actual Word Count: Date due: Lodgement Information Turnitin Lodgement: Date ( __ / __ / 20 __ ) Time ( __ . __ am/pm) Similarity Index % Hard Copy Submission Date: Declaration: ? I hold a copy of this assignment if the original is lost or damaged. ? I hereby certify that no part of this assignment or product has been copied from any other student’s work or from any other source except where due acknowledgement is made in the assignment. ? No part of the assignment has been written/produced for me by any other person or given to any other person, except where collaboration has been authorised by the subject lecturer/tutor concerned. ? I have not submitted this assessment item previously for this unit or any other unit. ? I am aware that this work may be retained on the Turnitin database for future plagiarism checking. ? This hardcopy is the same version as the assignment submitted through Turnitin. ? I understand that failure to uphold this declaration will result in academic proceedings in line with the UWS Academic Misconduct Policy. Signature:______________________________________ Note: An examiner or lecturer/tutor has the right to not mark this assignment if the above declaration has not been signed.

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