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Integumentary System Anatomy and Physiology

Would you be enticed by an notice for a laud that is impartproof, stretchable, washable, and permanent-press, that invisibly relits mean cuts, rips, and burns, and that is guaranteed to last a period delay irresolute denials? Sounds too amiable to be gentleman, but you already preserve such a laud- your cutaneous membrane or peel.

Functions of the Integumentary System


The operations of the integumentary rule are:
  1. Protection. The peel preserves obscureer works from automatic impairment (bumps), chemical impairment (acids and ignobles), ultraviolet radiation (noxious possessions of sunlight), bacterial impairment, eager impairment (warmth or indifferent), and desiccation (arefaction out).
  2. Temperature maxim. The peel aids in collection warmth dropping or warmth protestation as minor by the nervous rule.
  3. Elimination. The peel aids in the secretion of urea and uric harsh through exudation performed by the perspiration glands.
  4. Synthesizer. Synthesizes vitamin D through qualified cholesterol monads in the peel by sunlight.
  5. Sensation. The integumentary rule has sensory receptors that can incongruousiate warmth, indifferent, agitate, constraining, and pain.

Anatomy of the Integumentary System


The peel and its derivatives (perspiration and oil glands, hair and nails) answer a calculate of operations, for-the-most-allot preserveive; contemporaneously, these organs are designated the integumentary rule. Integumentary System-Integumentary Rule Division and Physiology for Nurses

Structure of the Skin

The peel is right of two husks of work: the exterior epidermis and the lowerlying dermis.

Epidermis


The exterior epidermis right of stratified squamous epithelium that is capable of keratinizing or befitting obdurate and unmanageable.
  • Composition. The epidermis is right of up to five flakes or strata; from the after a whilein out these are the: stratum basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, and corneum.
  • Epithelial work. Enjoy all other epithelial works, the epidermis is avascular; that is, it has no blood conduce of its own.
  • Keratinocytes. Most cells of the epidermis are keratinocytes (keratin cells), which quantity keratin, the difficult protein that makes the epidermis a unmanageable preserveive flake.
  • Stratum basale. The obscureest flake of the epidermis, the stratum basale, lies closest to the dermis and is aenjoy to it parallel a wavy a borderline that resembles corrugated cardboard; this basal flake embraces epidermal cells that assent-to the most courteous entertainment via evacuation of nutrients from the dermis.
  • Stratum spinosum. As the epidermal flakes agitate abroad from the dermis and beseem allot of the further sinconsiderable flakes, the stratum spinosum.
  • Stratum granulosum. Upon reaching the stratum granulosum, the flakes beseem laud and increasingly liberal of keratin.
  • Stratum lucidum. Finally, they die, consequenceing the disentangled stratum lucidum; this passing epidermal flake is not introduce in all peel districts, it betides simply where the peel is hairless and extra vaporous, that is, on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.
  • Stratum corneum. The exteriormost flake, the stratum corneum, is 20 to 30 cells flakes vaporous but it accounts for encircling three-quarters of epidermal vaporousness; it rubs and flakes off reluctantly and steadily as the dandruff affable to entireone; then, this flake is replaced by cells performed by the removal of the obscureer stratum basale cells.
  • Cornified cells. The shingleenjoy heavy cell remnants, totally assiduous delay keratin, are referred to as cornified or horny cells.
  • Keratin. Keratin is an ateionally unmanageable protein; its plenty in the stratum corneum allows that flake to yield a constant “overcoat” for the collection, which preserves obscureer cells from the adverse exterior environment.
  • Melanin. Melanin, a pigment that ranges in complexion from yellow to brown to sombre, is performed by peculiar spider-shaped cells designated melanocytes, establish primarily in the stratum basale.
  • Melanosomes. As the melanocytes quantity melanin, it accumulates delayin them in membrane-bound granules designated melanosomes; these granules then agitate to the ends of the spidery encounter of the melanocytes, where they are enthralled up by closeby keratinocytes.

Dermis


The lowerlying dermis is for-the-most-allot made up of stupid combineive work.
  • Major districts. The stupid (fibrous) combineive work making up the dermis consists of two senior districts- the papillary and reticular districts.
  • Papillary flake. The papillary flake is the upper dermal district; it is flinty and has pegenjoy projections from its preferable behavior designated dermal papillae, which clog the epidermis balance and embrace capillary loops which yield nutrients to the epidermis; it besides has papillary patterns that consequence looped and whorled ridges on the epidermal behavior that extension contact and relit the gripping power of the fingers and feet.
  • Reticular flake. The reticular flake is the obscureest peel flake; it embraces race vessels, perspiration and oil glands, and obscure constraining receptors designated Pacinian corpuscles.
  • Collagen. Collagen fibers are legitimate for the unmanageableness of the dermis; they besides entice and join impart-inchoate and thus succor to preserve the peel hydrated.
  • Elastic fibers. Alterable fibers yield the peel its alterableity when we are infantine, and as we age, the calculate of collagen and alterable fibers decreases and the subcutaneous work induces fat.
  • Blood vessels. The dermis is bulkyly gifted delay race vessels that emassociation a role in maintaining collection district homeostasis; when collection district is elevated, the capillaries of the dermis beseems engorged, or protuberant, delay warmthed race, and the peel beseems reddened and warm; if the environment is irresolute, race bypasses the dermis capillaries temporarily, allowing secret collection district to remain elevated.
  • Nerve conduce. The dermis besides has a copious firmness conduce; multifarious of the firmness endings preserve peculiarized receptor end-organs that aspect messages to the mediate nervous rule for version when they are stimulated by environmental factors.

Appendages of the Skin

The peel appendages lowerstand cutaneous glands, hair and hair follicle, and nails.

Cutaneous Glands


As these glands are consequenceed by the cells of the stratum basale, they impel into obscureer peel districts and notwithstanding lodge approximately totally in the dermis.
  • Exocrine glands. The cutaneous glands are all exocrine glands that extricate their secretions to the peel behavior via ducts and they sink into two groups: sebaceous glands and perspiration glands.
  • Sebaceous (oil) glands. The sebaceous, or oil, glands are establish all balance the peel, ate on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet; their ducts usually vacuity into a hair follicle; the issue of the sebaceous glands, sebum, is a adjustment of oily matters and fragmented cells, and it is a lubricant that preserves the peel delicate and lively and neutralizes the hair from befitting friable.
  • Sweat glands. Perspiration glands, besides designated sudoriferous glands, are widely reserved in the peel, and there are two types: eccrine and apocrine.
  • Eccrine glands. The eccrine glands are far further confused and are establish all balance the collection; they quantity perspiration, a disentangled secretion that is principally impart-inchoate plus some salts, vitamin C, thread of metabolic wastes, and lactic harsh; the eccrine glands are besides a allot of the collection’s warmth reigning equipment.
  • Apocrine glands. Apocrine glands are bulkyly intolerant to the axillary and genital areas of the collection; they are usually bulkyr than eccrine glands and their ducts vacuity into hair follicles; their secretion embrace fatty harshs and proteins, as polite-mannered-mannered as all matters introduce in eccrine secretion; they arise to operation during puberty lower the bias of androgens, and they besides emassociation a minimal role in thermoregulation.

Hair and Hair Follicles


There are millions of hair scattered all balance the collection, but other than serving a few junior preserveive operations, our collection hair has obsolete plenteous of its advantageousness.
  • Hairs. A hair, performed by a hair follicle, is a pliant epithelial composition.
  • Root. The allot of the hair enclosed in the follicle is the origin.
  • Shaft. The allot drooping from the behavior of the scalp or peel is designated substantiality.
  • Formation. The hair is consequenceed by removal of a polite-mannered-nourished stratum basale epithelial cells in the matrix (development zone) of the hair bulb at the minor end of the follicle.
  • Composition. Each hair is made up of a mediate nucleus designated the medulla enfolded by a brawny cortex flake.
  • Cuticle. The cortex is enclosed by an exteriormost cuticle consequenceed by a one flake of cells that balancelap one another enjoy shingles on the roof; this preparation succors to preserve the hairs aallot and preserves them from matting; the cuticle is the most heavily keratinized district; it yields power and succors preserve the secret hair flakes tightly compacted.
  • Hair pigment. Hair pigment is made by melanocytes in the hair bulb, and varying quantitys of incongruous types of melanin cohere to quantity all varieties of hair complexion from livid blond to roll sombre.
  • Hair follicles. Hair follicles are substantially structure compositions.
  • Epidermal sheath. The secret epidermal sheath is right of epithelial work and consequences the hair.
  • Dermal sheath. The exterior dermal sheath is substantially dermal combineive work; this dermal district preparation race vessels to the epidermal lot and reinforces it.
  • Papilla. Its nippleenjoy papilla yields the race conduce to the matrix in the hair bulb.
  • Arrector pili. Mean bonds of level muscle cells -arrector pili- combine each policy of the hair follicle to the dermal work; when these muscles narrow, the hair is pulled honest, dimpling the peel behavior delay “goosebumps”.

Nails


A nail is a scaleenjoy revision of the epidermis that corresponds to the hoof or claw of other animals.
  • Parts. Each nail has a unhindered verge, a body (conspicuous stable lot), and a root (embedded in the peel).
  • Nail envelops. The borders of the nail are balancelapped by peel envelops, designated nail envelops.
  • Cuticle. The vaporous proximal nail envelop is commsimply designated the cuticle.
  • Nail bed. The stratum basale of the epidermis extends adown the nail as the nail bed.
  • Nail matrix. Its vaporousened proximal area, the nail matrix, is legitimate for nail development.
  • Color. Nails are self-evident and approximately complexionless, but they appear pink accordingly of the copious race conduce in the lowerlying dermis.
  • Lunula. The ateion to the pinkish complexion of the nails is the district balance the vaporousened nail matrix that appears as a innocent crescent and is designated the lunula.”

Physiology of the Integumentary System

The ownd processes that betide in the integumentary rule are:

Development of Peel Color


Three pigments and equable emotions conduce to peel complexion:
  • Melanin. The quantity and husk (yellow, reddish brown, or sombre) of melanin in the epidermis.
  • Carotene. The quantity of carotene preserveioned in the stratum corneum and subcutaneous work; carotene is an orange-flame-yellow pigment bulky in carrots and other orange-flame, obscure yellow, or leafy uncooked vegetables; the peel tends to capture on a yellow-orange-flame aspect when the idiosyncratic eats bulky quantitys of carotene-copious foods.
  • Hemoglobin. The quantity of oxygen-copious hemoglobin in the dermal race vessels.
  • Emotions. Emotions besides bias peel complexion, and multifarious alterations in peel complexion important true complaint states.
  • Redness or erythema. Reddened peel may betray misfortune, fever, hypertension, inflammation, or allergy.
  • Pallor or blanching. Lower true types of moving emphasis, some race beseem livid; livid peel may besides purport anemia, low race constraining, or mixed race run into the area.
  • Jaundice or a yellow aspect. An abrecognized yellow peel sound usually signifies a liver guess-work in which intemperance bile pigments are attentive into the race, circulated throughout the collection, and preserveioned in collection works.
  • Bruises or sombre-and-blue marks. Black-and-blue marks make-known sites where race has staved from prevalence and has clotted in work spaces; such clotted race masses are designated hematomas.

Hair Development Cycle


At any yieldn season, a chance calculate of hairs achieve be in one of three rates of development and shedding: anagen, catagen, and telogen.
  • Anagen. Anagen is the locomotive deportment of hair; the cells in the origin of the hair are dividing ahead; a new hair is consequenceed and impeles the club hair (a hair that has stopped growing or is no longer in the anagen deportment) up the follicle and equabletually out.
  • Catagen. The catagen deportment is a alterable rate; development stops and the exterior origin sheath shrinks and attaches to the origin of the hair.
  • Telogen. Telogen is the pauseing deportment; during this deportment, the hair follicle is totally at pause and the club hair is totally consequenceed.

Nail Growth


Nail development is disjoined into 3 areas: (1) germinal matrix, (2) infertile matrix, and (3) dorsal roof of the nail envelop.
  • Germinal matrix. It is establish on the ventral pedestal of the nail envelop; the nail is performed by gradient parakeratosis , then cells cinduce the periosteum of the military transcript and enbulky (macrocytosis); newly consequenceed cells reject distally and dorsally in a support toward the nail; cells engage hindrance at symmetrical nail, causing them to mitigate and grow as they are incorporated into the nail; it initially retains nuclei (lunula); further distal cells beseem nonviable and induce nuclei.
  • Sterile matrix. The area of the infertile matrix is distal to the lunula and it has a capricious quantity of nail development; it conduces squamous cells, aiding in nail power and vaporousness and it has a role in nail dish superplenty by licinduce ridges in the infertile matrix epithelium.
  • Dorsal roof of the nail envelop. The nail is performed in a congruous behavior as the germinal matrix, but the cells induce nuclei further ahead and it imparts give to the nail dish.

Text Mode

Text Mode: All questions and answers are yieldn on a one page for balbutiation and obedient at your own gait. Be firm to seize a pen and Nursing Dissertation to transcribe down your answers. 1. The peel is the senior organ of the collection. All of the subjoined are operations of the peel EXCEPT A. District maxim B. Protection C. Sensation D. Vitamin B issueion 1. Answer: D. Vitamin B production
  • D: When unprotected to ultraviolet inconsiderable, the peel quantitys a monad that can be transformed into Vitamin D. 
  • A: Collection district is regulated by powerful the race run through the peel and the breath of the perspiration glands.
  • B: The peel yields safety opposite exfoliation and ultraviolet inconsiderable. It besides neutralizes the initiation of microorganisms and dehydration by reducing impart-inchoate dropping from the collection.
  • C: The peel has sensory receptors that can unmask denial, indifferent, warmth, agitate, and constraining.
2. Which of the subjoined yields the stratum corneum its structural power? A. Melanin B. Melanosomes C. Keratin D. Actin 2. Answer: C. Keratin
  • C: Keratin is an ateionally unmanageable protein; its plenty in the stratum corneum allows that flake to yield a constant “overcoat” for the collection, which preserves obscureer cells from the adverse exterior environment.
  • A: Melanin, a pigment that ranges in complexion from yellow to brown to sombre, is performed by peculiar spider-shaped cells designated melanocytes, establish primarily in the stratum basale.
  • B: Melanosomes, As the melanocytes quantity melanin, it accumulates delayin them in membrane-bound granules designated melanosomes; these granules then agitate to the ends of the spidery encounter of the melanocytes, where they are enthralled up by closeby keratinocytes.
  • D: Actin, one of the protein that consequences the narrowile filaments of muscle cells, and is besides confused in tumult in other types of cells.
3. In which flake of the peel lowergoes a mitotic removal? A. Stratum spinosum B. Stratum granulosum C. Stratum corneum D. Stratum basale 3. Answer: D. Stratum basale
  • D: The obscureest stratum, stratum basale, consists of cuboidal or supportal cells that lowergo mitotic removal entire 19 days.
  • A: Stratum spinosum is the flake where Langerhans cells are establish parallel delay multifarious rows of harassing keratinocytes.
  • B: Stratum granulosum, is where keratinocytes arise to quantity waxy lamellar granules to impartproof the peel.
  • C: Stratum corneum consists of heavy, squamous cells assiduous delay the obdurate protein designated keratin.
4. Which of the subjoined cells is legitimate for succoring the collection imbibe and subjoined unmask allergens in the peel. A. Cornified cells B. Fibroblasts. C. Merkel cells D. Langerhans cells 4. Answer: D. Langerhans cells
  • D: Langerhans cells are immune cells establish in the epidermis and are legitimate for succoring the collection imbibe and subjoined own new ‘allergens’ (extraneous to the collection).
  • A: Cornified cells, the shingle-enjoy heavy cell remnants, totally assiduous delay keratin, are referred to as cornified or horny cells.
  • B: Fibroblasts are cells that quantity and preserveion collagen and other elements of the dermis as required for development or to relit wounds.
  • C: Merkel cells are cells establish in the basal flake of the epidermis. Their straight role and operation are not polite-mannered-mannered lowerstood.
5. Which senior gland of the peel quantitys a secretion that is for-the-most-allot impart-inchoate delay few salts?  A. Lachrymal glands B. Eccrine glands C. Sebaceous glandsE D. Ceruminous glands 5. Answer: B. Eccrine glands
  • B: Eccrine glands hide perspiration, a adjustment of 99 percent impart-inchoate and 1 percent salts and fats.
  • A: Lachrymal glands hides veneration which livelyen, glaze, and preserve the behavior of the eye.
  • C: Sebaceous glands are establish all balance the collection ate on the palms of hands and soles of feet. The glands vacuity via ducts into the ignobles of hair follicles and hide sebum (a adjustment of waxes, fats, and hydrocarbons).
  • D: Ceruminous glands hide cerumen (earwax), a viscous matter that is fancy to repulse extraneous esthetic.
6. Which of the subjoined is legitimate for business the hair in the hair follicle? A. Cuticle B. Papilla C. Shaft D. Arrector pili 6. Answer: A. Cuticle
  • A: A hair has a obdurate cortex that is adept by cuticle which is a one flake of balancelapping cells that holds the hair in the hair follicle.
  • B: The papilla of a hair follicle embraces multifarious race vessels that conduce nutrients to foster the growing hair.
  • C: The allot drooping from the behavior of the scalp or peel is designated substantiality.
  • D: The arrector pili muscle (APM) consists of a mean bond of level muscle that combines the hair follicle to the combineive work of the foot membrane.
7. It is a peculiarized consequence of epidermis that is establish balance the ignoble of the nails of the fingers. 7. Answer: C. Eponychium
  • C: Eponychium or cuticle is a flake of epithelium that balancelaps and covers the verge of the nail collection. It succors to close the verges of the nail to neutralize infection of the lowerlying works.
  • A: The capricious or lividr hemispheric lot of the nail collection arcing upwards from the cuticle or eponychium is designated lunula.
  • B: The hyponychium is the area of epithelium, alloticularly the vaporousened lot, lowerlying the unhindered verge of the nail dish on the nail.
  • D: The unhindered verge of the fingernail is located further the nail collection, where the fingernails end.
8. The most low consequence of peel cancer is: A. Squamous cell carcinoma B. Dermatofibrosarcoma C. Basal cell carcinoma D. Merkel cell carcinoma 8. Answer: C. Basal cell carcinoma
  • C: Basal cell carcinoma is the most numerous peel cancer inchoate cosmicals.
  • A: Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for encircling 20% of all peel cancers but is further low in immunosuppressed race.
  • B and D: Less low peel cancers lowerstand venomous melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and dermatofibrosarcoma.
9. Which is the emend prescribe of the flakes of the epidermis, from the obscureest to the most slight? A. Stratum spinosum, S.basale, S.lucidum, S.granulosum, S.corneum B. Stratum corneum, S.lucidum, S.basale, S.spinosum, S.granulosum C. Stratum basale, S.spinosum, S.granulosum, S.lucidum, S.corneum D. Stratum corneum, S.lucidum, S.granulosum, S.spinosum, S.basale 9. Answer: C. Stratum basale, S.spinosum, S.granulosum, S.lucidum, S.corneum 10. The alterable rate in the hair development cycle is: A. Catagen B. Anagen C. Collagen D. Telogen 10. Answer: A. Catagen
  • A: The catagen deportment is a alterable rate; development stops and the exterior origin sheath shrinks and attaches to the origin of the hair.
  • B: Anagen is the locomotive deportment of hair.
  • C: Collagen is the most bulky protein in the cosmical collection.
  • D: Telogen is the pauseing deportment.

See Also


Other division and physiology consider guides:

Further Reading


  1. Nursing Diagnosis Handbook: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care
  2. Medical-Surgical Nursing: Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems
  3. Medical-Surgical Nursing: Patient-Centered Collaborative Care
  4. Saunders Comprehensive Review for the NCLEX-RN Examination
  5. Brunner & Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing

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