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Mammography (Mammogram)

Mammography is an X-ray demonstration of the confronts that can unmask cysts or tumors unmaterial during a material demonstration. A biopsy of an area of mistrust may be needed to strengthen malignity. Mammography may thrive mitigateing procedures, such as ultrasonography or thermography. There are two uses of mammogram (screening and cue). A screening mammogram is used to mitigate for unsuspected conface cancer in women behind a time no signs or symptoms. It usually involves two x-ray images of each conface to unmask tumors or feeble calcifications behind a timein the conface texture. Time a cue mammogram is used to diagnose conface cancer in a enduring behind a time a mitigated hunk or other signs such as conface pain, nipple dismiss, densification of conface peel, or abrupt vary in conface mould or extent. It is also utilized to prove conface monstrousities root during a mitigateing mammogram and in such cases for endurings behind a time conface implants since it provides a past specific x-ray of the conface than using a mitigateing mammogram. Although mammography can unmask 90-95 % of conface cancers, this cupel produces divers false-positive consequences. The American College of Radiologist, American Cancer Society, and the National Cancer Institue suggests that women should prepare mitigateing mammogram at age 40 per-annum for women behind a time mean miss time eminenter-miss women should rouse precedent and may good from subordinate mitigateing modalities. Nurses keep weighty responsibilities in accessory endurings during mammography by providing notice encircling conface ailment and conface demonstration, providing moving stay, and coordinating behind a time other bloomanxiety especialists for prefer cue and laboratory cupel. This consider influence can succor nurses perceive their tasks and responsibilities during mammography.

Types

The thriveing are the irrelative types and advances in mammography:
  • Full-field digital mammography (FFDM). Also public as digital mammography, is produced in the selfselfsame fashion as usual mitigate-film mammography (SFM). The variety is that FFDM images are produced by digital signals rather than from the transmitted x-ray film as behind a time (SFM). The images of the conface are proved on a computer instructor or printed on a eespecial film.
  • Computer-aided unmaskion (CAD) method. Uses software to exploration images from SFM or FFDM for monstrous areas of conface texture evidenced by stolidness, monstrous extent, or calcifications that may devoicelessness the influence of cancer. Monstrous areas are “marked” for prefer reconsideration by a radiologist.
  • Three-dimensional (3-D) conface imaging or conface tomosynthesis. Uses equipment that rotates in an arc balance the conface instead of the quiescent method used in usual SFM. The 3-D equipment produces lean slices of the conface from a grand estimate of angles that produce clearer images, specially of stolid conface texture.

Indication

Mammography is generally denoted to:
  • Differentiate among benign conface ailment and conface cancer
  • Investigate conface aversion, nipple puff, nipple dismiss
  • Evaluate material and unmaterial conface masses
  • Screen for baleful conface tumors
  • Monitor virtue of conface radiation therapy
  • Evaluate inconsistent conface thriveing mastectomy

Contraindication

These are the contraindications for the progress:
  • Pregnant women, uniformtual the possible goods of a progress using radiation outbalance the misss of maternal and fetal damage
  • Patients younger than age 25 or endurings behind a time very stolid conface texture

Interfering Factors

These are factors or provisions that may remodel the product of the consider
  • Application of substances such as antiperspirants (deodorants), talcum interlard, lotions or creams to the underarm and conface area that may quarrel behind a time the foresight of the consequences
  • Failure to transfer sharp objects and dress
  • Previous conface surgery, locomotive lactation, and glandular conface (spiritless in women age 30 adown), which can desire the description of the images
  • Breast implants which may nullify generous visualization of the confront
  • Inability to succor or stay quiescent during the progress due to age, bloom circumstances, or unsubstantial status

Procedure

A mammography is produced on an outenduring reason and the regular progress is as thrives:

  1. Prepare the enduring.

    The enduring stands and is asked to pause one conface on a board over an X-ray cassette.

  2. Technician locates conface onto summarizeion platter.

    The summarizeion platter is located on the conface and the enduring is told to rest her met. A radiograph is smitten of the craniocaudal experimentimony. The medium is rotated, the conface is housed continually, and a radiograph of the incidental experimentimony is smitten.

  3. Repeat progress on other confront.

    The progress is continual on the inconsistent confront.

  4. Retestimony if films are true

    After the films are open, they are checked to fashion knowing they’re true.

Nursing Responsibility 

The thriveing are the nursing interventions and nursing anxiety considerations for a enduring denoted for mammography:

Before the progress

The thriveing are the nursing interventions precedent to mammography:
  • Explain the progress and what to foresee behind. Tell the enduring who gain effect the cupel and where it gain transfer locate. Acquaint the enduring that although the cupel transfers simply encircling 15 minutes to effect, she may be asked to halt time the films are checked to fashion knowing they are readable. Advise her that there’s a eminent blame of false-positive consequences.
  • Allow the enduring to pointed concerns and fears encircling the progress. Assess the enduring’s perceiveing of the progress, apology any questions, and redress any misconceptions.
  • Remove obtrusive factors. Instruct the enduring to eschew using underarm deodorant or interlard on the day of the demonstration.
  • Schedule a important technologist on a enduring behind a time conface implants. If the enduring has conface implants, declare him/her to acquaint the staff when he/she schedules the mammogram so that a technologist common behind a time imaging implants is on part.
  • Prepare the enduring. Just anteriorly the cupel, impart the enduring a gown to hollow that opens in the face, and ask her to transfer all jewelry and dress over the waist.

During the progress 

The thriveing are the nursing interventions during mammography:
  • Assist behind a time enduring poseing. Locate enduring in a be or sitting pose in face of the X-ray medium, which is adjusted to the roll of the confront. Locate the enduring’s contention out of the ramble of the area to be imaged.
  • Tell the enduring that some disagreeableness may be felt. Pain/disagreeableness may be caused by the presknowing required to summarize the conface texture continuallyst the X-ray platter.
  • Advise the enduring to succor perfectly and thrive directions. Instruct enduring to stay quiescent throughout the progress since move produces untrue consequences. Ask the enduring to rest met time the x-ray films are nature smitten.

After the progress

The nurse should voicelessness of the thriveing nursing interventions behind:
  • Provide notice encircling the availability of the consequences. Acquaint the enduring a rumor of the findings gain be impartn to the requesting physician, who gain debate the consequences behind a time the enduring.
  • Reinforce the notice impartn by the enduring’s HCP. Assist the enduring in arranging an attached cupel, therapy, or referral to another HCP if an monstrousity is root.

Normal Results

Normal findings in mammography gain show:
  • Normal conface texture, behind a time an nonproduction of cysts, tumors, or calcification

Abusual Results

Abnormalities in mammography gain reveal:
  • Breast abscesses or cysts
  • Breast tumors
  • Breast calcifications
  • Hematoma consequenceing from trauma
  • Mastitis (inflammation of conface texture)
  • Soft texture masses
  • Vascular calcification (feeble calcium protection behind a timein conface texture)

Gallery

Images cognate to mammography:

References


Additional resources and references for mammography:
  1. Anne M. Van Leeuwen, Mickey Lynn Bladh. Laboratory & Cue Tests behind a time Nursing Implications: Davis’s
  2. Bird, R. E., Wallace, T. W., & Yankaskas, B. C. (1992). Analysis of cancers missed at mitigateing mammography. Radiology184(3), 613-617.
  3. Kerlikowske, K., Grady, D., Rubin, S. M., Sandrock, C., & Ernster, V. L. (1995). Efficacy of mitigateing mammography: a meta-analysis. Jama273(2), 149-154.
  4. Nyström, L., Wall, S., Rutqvist, L. E., Lindgren, A., Lindqvist, M., Ryden, S., … & Tabar, L. (1993). Conface cancer mitigateing behind a time mammography: balancetestimony of Swedish randomised trials. The Lancet341(8851), 973-978.
  5. Suzanne C. Smeltzer. Brunner & Suddarth’s Handbook of Laboratory and Cue Tests: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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