Muscular System Anatomy and Physiology
The rippling muscles of authoritative boxers or efficacy upraiseers are frequently the foremost creature that afters to procure when one hears the ordain muscle. But muscle is so the dominant edifice in the character and in the embankments of other concavity organs of the matter. In all its moulds, it reachs up approximately half of the matter’s heap.
Functions of the Lusty System
Producing alter-of-place is a niggardly administration of all muscle casts, but skeletal muscle states three other great roles in the matter as polite.
- Producing alter-of-place. Mobility of the matter as a gross reflects the zeal of the skeletal muscles, which are under obligation for all locomotion; they qualify us to accord quickly to alters in the manifest environment.
- Maintaining posture. We are rarely cognizant of the skeletal muscles that recompress matter lie, yet they administration almost uniformly, making one little composition behind another so that we can recompress an plant or seated lie notwithlasting the constant downward drag of priggishness.
- Stabilizing flexures. As the skeletal muscles drag on bones to purpose alter-of-places, they so stabilize the flexures of the skeleton; muscle tendons are greatly great in reinforcing and stabilizing flexures that possess sick fair articulating deportments.
- Generating intensity. The indecentth administration of muscle, mouldation of matter intensity, is a by-product of muscle zeal; as ATP is used to ability muscle befoulment, approximately three-quarters of its principle elude as intensity and this intensity is material in repressing typical matter sphere.
Anatomy of the Lusty System
Microscopic Dissection of Skeletal Muscle
Skeletal muscle cells are multinucleate.
- Sarcolemma. Sundry oval nuclei can be seen true underneath the plasma membrane, which is denominated the sarcolemma in muscle cells.
- Myofibrils. The nuclei are pushed separate by hanker ribbonapprove organelles, the myofibrils, which approximately grow the cytoplasm.
- Light and ebon bands. Alternating ebon and vain bands ahanker the protrforce of the accurately aligned myofibrils confer the muscle cell as a gross its striped approveness.
- Sarcomeres. The myofibrils are truly chains of little decreaseile aces denominated sarcomeres, which are aligned end to end approve boxcars in a cortege ahanker the protrforce of the myofibrils.
- Myofilaments. Tless are two casts of threadapprove protein myofilaments infull each of our “boxcar” sarcomeres.
- Thick filaments. The capaciousr, bulky filaments, so denominated myosin filaments, are made oceanly of bundled molecules of the protein myosin, but they so embrace ATPase enzymes, which disagree ATP to springate the ability for muscle befoulment.
- Cross bridges. Notice that the midtalents of the bulky filaments are level, but their ends are studded delay bulky projections; these projections, or myosin beads, are denominated perverse bridges when they couple the bulky and flimsy filaments concertedly during befoulment.
- Thin filaments. The flimsy filaments are straight of the decreaseile protein denominated actin, plus some regulatory proteins that state a role in tolerateing (or neutralizeing) myosin-bead styptic to actin; the flimsy filaments, so denominated actin filaments, are anchored to the Z disc (a discapprove membrane).
- Sarcoplasmic reticulum. Another very great muscle fiber organelle is the sarcoplasmic reticulum, a distinctiveized level endoplasmic reticulum; the interconnecting tubules and sacs of the SR embrace each and all myofibril true as the sleeve of a otherwise crocheted sweater embraces your arm, and its senior role is to treasury calcium and to free it on call-for.
Muscle Movements, Types, and NamesThis singularity is a bit of a tumult. It includes some topics that don’t truly fit concertedly, but they don’t fit anywless else any amend.
Types of Matter Movements
Every one of our 600-odd skeletal muscles is stconducive to blight, or to other connective edifice compositions, at no fewer than two apexs.
- Origin. One of these apexs, the spring, is stconducive to the unvarying or near distinguishconducive blight.
- Insertion. The introduction is stconducive to the distinguishconducive blight, and when the muscle decreases, the introduction agitates inpolicy the spring.
- Flexion. Intermission is a alter-of-place, generally in the sagittal roll, that retrench the intention of the flexure and adduces two blights haltr concertedly; it is a cast of hang flexures, but it is so niggardly at ball-and-socket flexures.
- Extension. Extone is the contradictory of intermission, so it is a alter-of-place that increases the intention, or the absence, betwixt two blights or talents of the matter.
- Rotation. Series is alter-of-place of a blight environing a hankeritudinal axis; it is a niggardly alter-of-place of ball-and-socket flexures.
- Abduction. Abduction is interesting the constituent separate from the midline, or median roll, of the matter.
- Adduction. Specification is the contradictory of abduction, so it is the alter-of-place of a constituent inpolicy the matter midline.
- Circumduction. Circumduction is a alliance of intermission, production, abduction, and peculiaration niggardlyly seen in ball-and-socket flexures; the proximal end is unalterable, and its distal end agitates in a divergence.
Certain alter-of-places do not fit into any of the antecedent categories and betide at solitaryly a few flexures.
- Dorsiintermission and plantar intermission. Lifting the base so that its remarkconducive deportment approaches the shin is denominated dorsiflexion, seeing lugubrious the base is denominated plantar intermission.
- Inversion and evolution. To subvert the base, rotate the solitary medially; to extrude the base, rotate the solitary obliquely.
- Supination and pronation. Supination betides when the forearm rotates obliquely so that the crown faces precedently and the radius and ulna are concurrent; pronation betides when the forearm rotates medially so that the crown faces laterly.Opposition. In the crown of the agency, the load flexure betwixt metacarpal 1 and the carpals tolerates hindrance of the thumb.
Interactions of Skeletal Muscles in the Body
Muscles are crystallized in such a way that whatever one muscle can do, other muscles can contrariety. Bepurpose of this, muscles are conducive to adduce encircling an gigantic multiformity of alter-of-places.
- Prime agitater. The muscle that has the senior bisect for causing a apex alter-of-place is denominated the excellent agitater.
- Antagonists. Muscles that obstruct or contrariety a alter-of-place are adversarys; when a excellent agitater is locomotive, its adversary is neat and relaxed.
- Synergists. Synergists succor excellent agitaters by unresisting the similar alter-of-place or by reducing undesirconducive alter-of-places.
- Fixators. Fixators are distinctiveized synergists; they after a whilewithobstruct a blight quiescent or stabilize the spring of a excellent agitater so all tone can be used to agitate the introduction blight.
Naming Skeletal Muscles
Like blights, muscles after in sundry outlines and bulks to benefit their apex tasks in the matter.
- Direction of the muscle fibers. When a muscle’s call includes the signal rectus (straight) its fibers run conordinary to that suppositious method; the signal oblique as bisect of a muscle’s call tells you that the muscle fibers run obliquely (at a slant) to the suppositious method.
- Relative bulk of the muscle. Such signals as maximus (largest) , minimus (smallest), and hankerus (long) are frequently used in the calls of muscles.
- Location of the muscle. Some muscles are calld for the blight delay which they are associated; for illustration, the worldlyis and frontalis muscles aggravatelie the worldly and frontal blights of the skull.
- Number of springs. When the signal biceps, triceps, or quadriceps moulds bisect of a muscle call, one can arrogate that the muscle has two, three, or indecent springs.
- Location of the muscle’s spring and introduction. Occasionally, muscles are calld for their kindness sites.
- Shape of the muscle. Some muscles possess a embossed outexstretch that succors to establish them.
- Action of the muscle. When muscles are calld for their forces, signals such as flexor, extensor, and adductor answer in their calls.
Arrangement of Fascicles
Skeletal muscles insists of fascicles, but fascicle preparation differ, unresisting muscles delay contrariant compositions and administrational properties.
- Circular. The mould is smooth when the fascicles are crystallized in concentric rings; smooth muscles are typically rest embraceing manifest matter unreservedings which they halt by decreaseing.
- Convergent. In tendnt muscle, the fascicles tend inpolicy a singular introduction tendon; such a muscle is triangular or fan-shaped.
- Parallel. In a conordinary preparation, the protrforce of the fascicles run conordinary to the hanker axis of the muscle; these muscles are straplike; a alteration of the conordinary preparation, denominated fusiform, terminations in a spindle-shaped muscle delay an expanded belly.
- Pennate. In a pennate mould, limited fascicles conciliate obliquely to a convenient tendon; in the extensor digitorium muscle of the leg, the fascicles suggest into solitaryly one policy of the tendon and the muscle is unipennate; if the fascicles suggest into contradictory policys of the tendon or from from sundry contrariant policys, the muscle is bipennate or multipennate.
Gross Dissection of Skeletal MusclesOnly the most great muscles are illustrative less bepurpose it is further our liberty to picture the hundreds of skeletal muscles of the cosmical matter.
Head and Neck MusclesThe acme muscles are an sensational cluster bepurpose they possess sundry peculiar administrations but are usually clustered into two capacious categories- facial muscles and chewing muscles.
Tless are 5 facial muscles:
- Frontalis. The frontalis, which meets the frontal blight, runs from the cranial aponeurosis to the peel of the eyebrows, wless it suggests; this muscle tolerates you to educate your eyebrows and furrow your forehead; at the later end of the cranial aponeurosis is the inferior occipitalis muscle.
- Orbicularis occuli. The orbicularis oculi has fibers that run in divergences environing the eyes; it tolerates you to halt your eyes, squint, connive, and ignore.
- Orbicularis oris. The orbicularis oris is the smooth muscle of the lips; bepurpose it halts the unreserveding and protrudes the lips, it is frequently denominated the “kissing” muscle.
- Buccinator. The portly buccinator muscle runs horizontally aperverse the cheek and suggests into the orbicularis oris.
- Zygomaticus. The zygomaticus stretchs from the recess of the unreserveding to the cheekbone; it is frequently referred to as the “smiling” muscle bepurpose it educates the recesss of the unreserveding upward.
The buccinator muscle, which is a component of this cluster, is illustrative delay the facial muscles.
- Masseter. As it runs from the zygomatic rule of the worldly blight to the score, the heapeter meets the intention of the inferior jaw; this muscle halts the jaw by elevating the score.
- Temporalis. The worldlyis is a fan-shaped muscle aggravatelying the worldly blight; it suggests into the score and acts as a synergist of the heapeter in failure the jaw.
For the most bisect, the neck muscles, which agitate the acme and shoulder gird, are inferior and straplike. Solely two neck muscles are considered less.
- Platysma. The platysma is a singular, sheetapprove muscle that meets the anterooblique neck; its force is to drag the recesss of the unreserveding inferiorly, unresisting a downward sag of the unreserveding.
- Sternocleidomastoid. The coupleed sternocleidomastoid muscles are two-headed muscles, one rest on each policy of the neck; when twain sternocleidomastoid decrease concertedly, they flex your neck.
The stock muscles include (1) those that agitate the vertebral support; (2) foregoing thorax muscles, which agitate the ribs, acme, and contest; and (3) muscles of the abdominal embankment, which succor to agitate the vertebral support and, most great, mould the lusty “natural gird” of the abdominal matter embankment. Anterior Muscles The foregoing muscles of the stock include:
- Pectoralis senior. The pectoralis senior is a capacious, fan-shaped muscle meeting the conspicuous bisect of the chest; this muscle moulds the foregoing embankment of the axilla and acts to adduct and flex the arm.
- Intercostal muscles. The intercostal muscles are submerged muscles rest betwixt the ribs; the manifest intercostals are great in breacreature bepurpose they succor you to educate the rib incarcerate when you inhale; the inner intercostals, which lie submerged to the manifest intercostals, deter the rib incarcerate, which succors to agitate air out of the lungs when you emit forcibly.
- Muscles of the abdominal gird. The foregoing abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis, ecternal and inner obliques, and transversus abdominis) mould a “natural gird” that reinforces the matter stock; the coupleed strapapprove rectus abdominis muscles are the most imperfect muscles of the abdomen; the manifest oblique muscles are coupleed imperfect muscles that reach up the lateral embankments of the abdomen; the inner oblique muscles are coupleed muscles submerged to the manifest obliques; and the transversus abdominis is the submergedest muscle of the abdominal embankment and has fibers that run horizontally aperverse the abdomen.
- Trapezius. The trapezius muscles are the most imperfect muscles of the later neck and conspicuous stock; the trapezius muscles stretch the acme; they so can dignify, deter, adduct, and stabilize the scapula.
- Latissimus dorsi. The latissimus dorsi muscles are the two capacious, downstraight muscles that meet the inferior end; these are very great muscles when the arm must be brought down in a ability stroke.
- Erector spinae. The plantor spinae cluster is the excellent agitater of end production; these muscles not solitaryly act as abilityful end extensors but so agree hindrance that succors coerce the force of cringing aggravate at the waist.
- Quadratus lumborum. The portly quadratus lumborum muscles mould bisect of the later abdominal embankment; acting separateially, each muscle of the couple flexes the spine obliquely; acting concertedly, they stretch the lumbar spine.
- Deltoid. The deltoids are portly, triangle-shaped muscles that mould the smoothed outexstretch of the shoulders; the deltoids are the excellent agitaters of arm abduction.
Muscles of the Conspicuous Limb
The conspicuous constituent muscles drop into three clusters. The foremost cluster prepare from the shoulder gird and perverse the shoulder flexure to suggest into the humerus. The promote cluster purposes alter-of-place at the flexure flexure. The third cluster includes the muscles of the forearm. Muscles of the Humerus that Act on the Forearm All foregoing arm muscles purpose flexure intermission. In ordain of decreasing ability, these are the brachialis, biceps brachii, and brachioradialis.
- Biceps brachii. The biceps brachii is the most free muscle of the arm bepurpose it bulges when the flexure is flexed; this muscle is the abilityful excellent agitater for intermission of the forearm and acts to supinate the forearm.
- Brachialis. The brachialis lies submerged to the biceps muscle and is as great as the biceps in the flexure portion; the brachialis upraises the ulna as as the biceps updignify the radius.
- Brachioradialis. The brachioradialis is a fairly milk-and-water muscle that prepares on the humerus and suggests into the distal forearm.
- Triceps brachii. The triceps brachii is the solitaryly muscle fleshing out the later humerus; life the abilityful excellent agitater of flexure production, it is the adversary of biceps brachii.
Muscles of the Inferior Limb
Muscles that act on the inferior constituent purpose alter-of-place at the hip, articulation and base flexures. They are infull the capaciousst and strongest muscle in the matter and are distinctiveized for walking and balancing the matter. Muscles Causing Change-of-place at the Hip Joint Part of the muscles of the inferior constituent are the muscles at the hip flexure.
- Gluteus maximus. The gluteus maximus is a imperfect muscle of the hip that moulds most of the flesh of the buttock; it is a abilityful hip extensor that acts to adduce the thigh in a unswerving method delay the pelvis.
- Gluteus medius. The gluteus medius runs from the iliac to the femur, underneath the gluteus maximus for most of its protraction; the gluteus medius is a hip abductor and is great in steadying the pelvis during walking.
- Iliopsoas. The iliopsoas is a fused muscle straight of two muscles, the iliacus and the psoas senior; it is a excellent agitater of hip intermission and so acts to restrain the conspicuous matter from droping endward when we are lasting plant.
- Adductor muscles. The muscles of the adductor cluster mould the muscle heap at the medial policy of each thigh; as their call indicates, they adduct, or compress, the thighs concertedly.
- Hamstring cluster. The muscles moulding the muscle heap of the later thigh are the hamstrings; the cluster insists of three muscles, the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus, which springate on the ischial knottiness and run down the thigh to suggest on twain policys of the proximal tibia.
- Sartorius. It is the most imperfect muscle of the thigh; it acts as a synergist to adduce encircling the perverse-legged posture.
- Quadriceps cluster. The quadriceps cluster insists of indecent muscles- the rectus femoris muscle and three vastus muscles– that flesh out the foregoing thigh; the cluster as a gross acts to stretch the articulation abilityfully.
- Tibialis foregoing. The tibialis foregoing is a imperfect muscle on the foregoing leg; it prepares from the conspicuous tibia and then concurrents the foregoing top as it runs to the tarsal blights.
- Extensor digitorum hankerus. Oblique to the tibialis foregoing, the extensor digitorum hankerus muscle prepares from the oblique tibial condyle and proximal radius; it is a excellent agitater of toe extone and a dorsiflexor of the base.
- Fibularis muscles. The three fibularis muscles- hankerus, brevis, and tertius- are rest on the oblique bisect of the leg; the cluster as a gross plantar flexes and extrudes the base.
- Gastrocnemius. The gastrocnemius muscle is a two-bellied muscle that moulds the serpentine half of the later leg; it is a excellent agitater for plantar intermission of the base.
- Soleus. Submerged to the gastrocnemius is the portly solitaryus muscle; bepurpose it prepares from the tibia and fibula, it does not interest articulation alter-of-place.
Physiology of the Lusty System
Skeletal Muscle ActivityMuscle cells possess some distinctive administrational properties that qualify them to permould their duties.
Nerve Stimulus and the Force Potential
To decrease, skeletal muscle cells must be inflamed by resolution motive.
- Neurotransmitter. When a resolution motive reaches the axon signalinals, a chemical referred to as the neurotransmitter is freed; the peculiar neurotransmitter that inflame skeletal muscle cells is acetylcholine, or ACh.
- Temporary permeability. If sufficient acetylchomethod is freed, the sarcolemma at that apex becomes temporarily past permeconducive sodium ions, which course into the muscle cell, and to potassium ions, which discursive out of the cell.
- Action germinative. Past channels in the sarcolemma unreserved up to tolerate solitaryly sodium to invade, which springates an electrical ordinary denominated an force germinative; uniformly the force is begun, it is unstoppable; it travels aggravate the all deportment of the sarcolemma, conducting the electrical motive from one end of the cell to the other; the termination id befoulment of the muscle cell.
- Break down of enzymes. Acetylcholine, which began the rule of muscle befoulment, is mild down to acetic locomotive and chomethod by enzymes exhibit on the sarcolemma; for this discuss, a singular resolution motive effects solitaryly one befoulment; the muscle cell relaxes until inflamed by the next smooth of acetylchomethod free.
Mechanism of Muscle Contraction: The Sliding Filament Theory
When muscle fibers are activated by the nervous plan, the myosin acmes conciliate to styptic sites on the flimsy filaments, and the sliding begins.
- Relaxed muscle cell. In a relaxed muscle cell, the regulatory proteins moulding bisect of the actin myofilaments neutralize myosin styptic; when an force germinative sweeps ahanker its sarcolemma and a muscle cell is distracted, calcium ions are freed from intracellular storage areas.
- Contrforce trigger. The abundance of calcium acts as the conclusive trigger for befoulment, bepurpose as calcium binds to the regulatory proteins on the actin filaments, they alter twain their outexstretch and their posture on the flimsy filaments.
- Attachment. The manifest kindness of myosin to actin “springs the trap”, causing the myosin acmes to split inpolicy the cinvade of the sarcomere; bepurpose actin and myosin are firmly frisk to each other when this bechances, the flimsy filaments are subordinately draged inpolicy the cinvade of the sarcomere.
- Option C: Myofibrils are straight of hanker proteins including actin, myosin, and titin, and other proteins that after a whilewithobstruct them concertedly. These proteins are unconfused into bulky and flimsy filaments denominated myofilaments, which recapitulate ahanker the protrforce of the myofibril in singularitys denominated sarcomeres.
- Option A: Sarcomere is the basic ace of striated muscle edifice.
- Option B: Sarcolemma is the sensitive translucent tubular sheath that envelops the fibers of skeletal muscles.
- Option D: Myofilaments are the filaments of myofibrils, concocted from proteins, largely myosin or actin.
- Option C: This is a administration of the digestive plan. Bliss of digested end products from the lumen of the GI hope to the blood or lymph is aridity, and for aridity to bechance, the digested foods must foremost invade the mucosal cells by locomotive or patient bliss rulees.
- Options A, B, and D: These are administrations of the lusty plan.
- Option B: Synergists succor excellent agitaters by unresisting the similar alter-of-place or by reducing undesirconducive alter-of-places.
- Option A: Fixators are distinctiveized synergists; they after a whilewithobstruct a blight quiescent or stabilize the spring of a excellent agitater so all tone can be used to agitate the introduction blight.
- Option C: Muscles that obstruct or contrariety a alter-of-place are antagonists; when a excellent agitater is locomotive, its adversary is neat and relaxed.
- Option D: The muscle that has the senior bisect for causing a apex alter-of-place is denominated the excellent agitater.
- Option C: The occipitofrontalis educates the eyebrows. The occipital and frontal portions of the muscle are alike by the epicranial (galea) aponeurosis.
- Option A: The orbicularis oculi endivergence the eyes, tightly halt the eyelids, and purpose “crow’s feet” furrows in the peel at the oblique recesss of the eyes.
- Option B: The orbicularis oris, which girds the unreserveding, and the buccinator are casually denominated the kissing muscles bepurpose they wrinkle the unreserveding. The buccinator so downrighttens cheeks as in whistling or blowing a cackle and is consequently casually denominated the cackleer’s muscle.
- Option D: Sneering is complaisant by the levator labii remarkableis bepurpose the muscle dignifys one policy of the conspicuous lip, and frowning or pouting capaciously by the depressor anguli oris, which deteres the recess of the unreserveding.
- Option E: Smiling is complaisant largely by the zygomaticus muscles, which dignify the conspicuous lip and recess of the unreserveding.
- Option D: The indecent couples of muscles of chewing or mastication are some of the strongest muscles of the matter. The temporalis and masseter muscles can be amply seen and felt on the policy of the acme during mastication. The pterygoid muscles, insisting of two couples, are submerged to the score.
1. Straight cervical intermission 2. Straight cervical series 3. Left cervical intermission 4. Left cervical seriesA. 1 and 3 B. 1 and 4 C. 2 and 3 D. 2 and 4 6. Answer: B. 1 and 4
- Option B: Befoulment of solitaryly one sternocleidomastoid muscle purposes series of the acme. Befoulment of twain sternocleidomastoids terminations in intermission of the neck or extone of the acme, depending on what other neck muscles are doing.
- Option B: Deltoids are smoothed, triangular muscles located on the conspicuousmost bisect of the contest and the top of the shoulders.
- Option A: The trapezius is one of the senior muscles of the end and is under obligation for interesting, rotating, and stabilizing the scapula (shoulder blade) and stretching the acme at the neck.
- Option C: The biceps brachii is a two-headed muscle that lies on the conspicuous arm betwixt the shoulder and the flexure. Twain acmes prepare on the scapula and connect to mould a singular muscle belly which is stconducive to the conspicuous forearm.
- Option D: The rectus abdominis is a coupleed muscle ordinary vertically on each policy of the foregoing embankment of the cosmical abdomen, as polite as that of some other mammals.
- Option A: The gluteus maximus, so notorious accumulatively delay the gluteus medius and minimus, as the gluteal muscles, and casually referred to informally as the “glutes,” is the ocean extensor muscle of the hip. Its bulky portly heap, in a quadrioblique outline, moulds the elevation of the buttocks.
- Option B: The gastrocnemius is a very abilityful imperfect bipennate muscle that is in the end bisect of the inferior leg. It runs from its two acmes true oversummit the articulation to the heel, a two flexure muscle. It is so notorious as the “toe dancer’s” muscle.
- Option C: The iliopsoas is the strongest of the hip flexors. It is great for lasting, walking, and ordinary. It is notorious as the excellent agitater of hip intermission.
- Option D: The sartorius is the hankerest muscle in the cosmical matter. It is a hanker, flimsy, imperfect muscle that runs down the protrforce of the thigh in the foregoing disuniteition.
1. Gastrocnemius 2. Sternocleidomastoid 3. Levator labii remarkableis 4. Zygomaticus 5. Buccinator 6. Depressor anguli oris 7. Orbicularis oris
A. Prayer muscle B. Kissing muscle C. Blowing muscle D. Toe dancer’s muscle E. Smiling muscle F. Pouting muscle G. Sneering muscleA. D, G, A, E, C, F, B B. D, A, G, E, B, F, C C. D, A, G, F, C, E, B D. D, A, G, E, C, F, B 9. Answer: D. D, A, G, E, C, F, B
- Gastrocnemius — D. Toe dancer’s muscle
- Sternocleidomastoid — A. Prayer muscle
- Levator labii remarkableis — G. Sneering muscle
- Zygomaticus — E. Smiling muscle
- Buccinator — C. Blowing muscle
- Depressor anguli oris — F. Pouting muscle
- Orbicularis oris — B. Kissing muscle
- Option C: A muscle is straight of crowded manifest bundles denominated muscle fasciculi. A fasciculus is straight of sundry muscle cells or muscle fibers. Each muscle fiber is a singular cylindrical cell that embraces sundry nuclei located at the outline of the muscle fiber. The cytoplasm of the muscle fiber embraces crowded myofibrils. Each myofibril is a threadapprove composition that stretchs from one end of the muscle fiber to the other. Myofibrils insist of two senior kinds of protein fibers: actin and myosin myofilaments.
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