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Nola Pender: Health Promotion Model

Nola J. Pender (1941– give) is a nursing theorist who plain the Health Preferment Model in 1982. She is to-boot an creator and a amalgamatent emeritus of nursing at University of Michigan. She agoing studying sanity-promoting deportment in the mid-1970s and foremost published the Sanity Preferment Type in 1982. Her Sanity Preferment Type indicates alterative sanity measures and describes the dubious space of nurses in abetting patients checkmate distemper by self-care and dauntshort instrument. Pender has been named a Buttress Legend of the American Garden of Nursing.

Biography of Nola J. Pender

Nola J. Pender
Nola J. Pender

Early Life

Nola Pender was born on August 16, 1941, in Lansing, Michigan to parents who properd order for women. Her foremost delayremain delay the nursing business was when she was 7 years old and witnessed the heed fond to her hospitalized aunt by nurses. This birth led her to the covet to heed for other herd and her design was to aid herd heed for themselves.


With the maintenance of her parents, Nola Pender entered the School of Nursing at West Suburban Hospital in Oak Park, Illinois, and select her nursing seal in 1962. In 1965, she selectd her master’s stage in rational augmentation and product from the similar university. She moved to Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, to prorepair a Ph.D. in psychology and order in 1969. Pender’s dissertation tuition investigated productal transmutes in the encoding way of short-term perpetuation in children. Years succeeding, she excellent masters-raze claimion in association sanity nursing at Rush University.

Career and Appointments

In 1962, Nola Pender began claimioning on a medical-surgical single and after in a pediatric single in a Michigan hospital. For 40 years at Michigan Propound University, she skilled students at underfurrow and furrow razes and mentored divers postdoctoral candidates. Pender straightforwarded divers studies of her Sanity Preferment Type delay adolescents and adults which made her balance erratic in nursing tuition. Pender and her tuition single plain the program Girls on the Move, that studies and measures the conclusions of intrusion as it applies to use the type to allow coming herd to act erratic conductstyles. Pender was and peaceful is very maintenanceive of nursing organizations where she fond her duration, employment and cognizance. She was the superintendent of the Midwest Nursing Tuition Society from 1985 to 1987. Aside from substance the superintendent of the American Garden of Nursing from 1991 to 1993, she was to-boot a portion of Tuition America’s Board of Directors from 1991 to 1993, and a portion of the U.S. Alterative Services Task Force from 1998 to 2002. In restitution, Pender was an Associate Dean for Tuition at the University of Michigan School of Nursing from 1990 to 2001. And as a co-founder of the Midwest Nursing Tuition Society, she has served as a trustee of its establishment bybygone 2009. Pender is gively a Adherent Emeritus at Michigan Propound University. Aftercited her retreat as an erratic amalgamatent, she devotes her duration as an confederate for sanity tuition twain nationally and internationally and shares her cognizance and experiences to excite ameliorate the nursing business. She to-boot serves as Distinguished Adherent of Nursing at Loyola University School of Nursing in Chicago, Illinois.


As compliments to sanity preferment, Nola Pender has written and issued multiform catechism on drill, deportment transmute, and relaxation inoculation. She to-boot has served on editorial boards and as an editor for journals and books. Pender is to-boot public as a student, giveer, and consultant in sanity preferment. She has claimioned in collaboration delay nurse scientists in Japan, Korea, Mexico, Thailand, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, England, New Zealand, And Chile. By contributing commencement as a consultant to tuition centers and giving student consultations, Pender resumes influencing the arena of nursing. She to-boot collaborates delay the editor of the American Journal of Sanity Promotion, promoting congress to maintenance sanity preferment tuition.

Selected Publications Connected to Nola Pender

  • Health Preferment in Nursing Usage (6th Edition)
  • Pender, Nola J. Study Guide for Sanity Preferment in Nursing Practice
  • Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing Practice
  • Robbins, L.B., Gretebeck, K.A., Kazanis, A.S. and Pender, Nola.J. Girls on the Move
  • Program to Acception Visible Activity Participation, Nursing Research, 2006
  • Pender, Nola.J., Bar-Or, O., Wilk, B. and Mitchell, S. Self-Efficacy and Perceived Exertion of Girls During Exercise, Nursing Research, 2002
  • Eden, K.B., Orleans, C.T., Mulrow, C.D., Pender, Nola.J. and Teutsch, S.M. Does Counseling by Clinicians Ameliorate Visible Activity? A Summary of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, Annals of Internal Medicine, 2002
  • Robbins, L.B., Pender, Nola.J., Conn, V.S., Frenn, M.D., Neuberger, G.B., Nies, M.A., Topp, R.V. and Wilbur, J.E. Visible Activity Tuition in Nursing, Nursing School Journal, 2001

Awards and Honors of Nola Pender

Nola J. Pender
Image via University of Michigan Library
Pender has been the case of crowded confession and accords that involve the 1972 Distinguished Alumni Accord from Michigan Propound University School of Nursing. In 1988, she selectd the Midwest Nursing Tuition Society’s Distinguished Contributions to Tuition Award. She to-boot procureed an Honorary Doctorate of Science stage from Widener University, Chester, Pennsylvania, in 1992. In 1997, the American Metanatural Association accorded her the Distinguished Contributions to Nursing and Psychology Award. She was accorded the Mae Edna Doyle Teacher of the Year Accord from the University of Michigan School of Nursing the aftercited year. In 2005, she selectd the Lifeduration Achievement Accord from the Midwest Nursing Tuition Society. Pender was denominated a Buttress Legend of the American Garden of Nursing in 2012. The accord has simply been accorded to nurses who keep made unappropriated contributions to the business. Pender was the superintendent of the garden from 1991 to 1993.

Nola Pender’s Sanity Preferment Model

Have you constantly noticed advertisements in malls, grocery stores, or schools that proper sanityy-eating or periodical drill? Keep you bybygone to your topical centers or hospitals promoting visible activities and smoking abeyance programs such as “quit” activities and “brief intrusions?” These are all samples of sanity preferment. The Sanity Preferment Model, plain by nursing theorist Nola Pender, has supposing sanityheed a new track. According to Nola J. Pender, Sanity Preferment and Ailment Stoppage should be the excellentest nucleus in sanity heed, and when sanity preferment and checkmateion lose to prepare predicaments and problems, then heed in distemper becomes the after initiative.

What is Sanity Preferment Model? 

The Health Preferment Model notes that each idiosyncratic has uncommon idiosyncratical distinctions and experiences that pretend after resuscitations. The set of variables for deportmental inequitoperative cognizance and pretend keep expressive motivational signification. These variables can be mitigated through nursing resuscitations. Sanity promoting deportment is the covetd deportmental fruit and is the endpoint in the Sanity Preferment Model. Sanity promoting deportments should conclusion in ameliorated sanity, enhanced spaceal power and ameliorate property of conduct at all stages of product. The terminal deportmental insist is to-boot governd by the present competing insist and preferences, which can derail artificed sanity-promoting resuscitations. Nola Pender’s Sanity Preferment Type scheme was originally published in 1982 and succeeding ameliorated in 1996 and 2002. It has been used for nursing tuition, order, and usage. Applying this nursing scheme and the substance of cognizance that has been cool through contemplation and tuition, nurses are in the top business to empower herd to ameliorate their well-behaved-substance delay self-heed and defiant sanity deportments. The Sanity Preferment Type was contrived to be a “complementary match to types of sanity refuge.” It develops to thicken deportments for proper sanity and applies opposing the conduct couple. Its artifice is to help nurses in proficient and sense the main determinants of sanity deportments as a establishment for deportmental counseling to raise well-behaved-substance and sanityy conductstyles. Pender’s sanity preferment type settles sanity as “a defiant dynamic propound not merely the scantiness of ailment.” Sanity preferment is straightforwarded at increasing a client’s raze of welfare. It describes the multi-dimensional kind of idiosyncratics as they interact delayin the environment to chase sanity. The type nucleuses on the aftercited three areas: single distinctions and experiences, deportment-inequitoperative cognitions and pretend, and deportmental fruits.

Major Concepts of the Sanity Preferment Model

Health preferment is settled as deportment motivated by the covet to acception well-behaved-substance and developedize rational sanity implicit. It is an approximation to well-behavedness. On the other laborer, sanity refuge or distemper checkmateion is forcible as deportment motivated covet to erraticly quit distemper, unmask it coming, or observe spaceing delayin the burdents of distemper. Individual distinctions and experiences (preceding connected deportment and idiosyncratical factors). Behavior-inequitoperative cognitions and affect (perceived benefits of resuscitation, perceived barriers to resuscitation, perceived self-efficacy, activity-connected pretend, interseparate governs, and birthal governs). Behavioral fruits (commitment to a pur-pose of resuscitation, present competing insists and preferences, and sanity-promoting deportment).

Subconcepts of the Sanity Preferment Model

Personal Factors

Personal factors categorized as biological, metanatural and socio-cultural. These factors are suggestive of a fond deportment and shaped by the kind of the target deportment substance considered.
  • Personal biological factors. Include variables such as age gender substance lump apostacy pubertal foothold, aerobic space, ability, activity, or et.
  • Personal metanatural factors. Involve variables such as self-esteem, self-motivation, idiosyncratical power, perceived sanity foothold, and restriction of sanity.
  • Personal socio-cultural factors. Involve variables such as vigilanceer, ethnicity, acculturation, order, and socioeconomic foothold.

Perceived Benefits of Action

Anticipated defiant fruits that get betide from sanity deportment.

Perceived Barriers to Action

Anticipated, imagined or veritoperative blocks and idiosyncratical costs of sense a fond deportment.

Perceived Self-Efficacy

Judgment of idiosyncratical cappower to dispose and consummate a sanity-promoting deportment. Perceived self-competency governs perceived barriers to resuscitation so excellent competency conclusions in lowered perceptions of barriers to the actance of the deportment.

Activity-Related Affect

Subjective defiant or privative pathos that betides antecedently, during and aftercited deportment based on the rousing properties of the deportment itself. Activity-connected pretend governs perceived self-efficacy, which media the balance defiant the intellectual pathos, the main the pathos of competency. In revolve, acceptiond pathoss of competency can engender a excite defiant pretend.

Interseparate Influences

Cognition about deportments, beliefs, or attitudes of the others. Interseparate governs involve norms (expectations of momentous others), political maintenance (instrumental and emotional allowment) and typeing (representative tuition through observing others employed in a feature deportment). Primitive origins of interseparate governs are families, peers, and sanityheed contributers.

Situational Influences

Personal perceptions and cognitions of any fond birth or composition that can fit or obstruct deportment. Involve perceptions of options conducive, insist distinctions and aesthetic features of the environment in which fond sanity promoting is inexhaustive to select fix. Situational governs may keep straightforward or instraightforward governs on sanity deportment.

Commitment to Pur-pose of Action

The concept of artifice and identification of a pur-posened temporization leads to the implementation of sanity deportment

Immediate Competing Demands and Preferences

Competing insists are those reorigin deportments balance which singles keep low administer consequently there are environmental contingencies such as claimion or origin heed responsibilities. Competing preferences are reorigin deportments balance which singles claim relatively excellent administer, such as exquisite of ice marrow or apple for a snack

Health-Promoting Behavior

A health-promoting deportment is an endpoint or resuscitation fruit that is straightforwarded inside attaining defiant sanity fruits such as optimal well-behavedbeing, idiosyncratical fulfillment, and prolific buttress.

Major Assumptions in Sanity Preferment Model

  • Individuals search to erraticly organize their own deportment.
  • Individuals in all their biopsychopolitical complication interact delay the environment, progressively transforming the environment and substance transformed balance duration.
  • Health businessals organize a divorce of the interseparate environment, which claims govern on idiosyncratics throughout their conduct couple.
  • Self-initiated reconfiguration of idiosyncratic-environment intererratic patterns is redundant to deportment transmute.


  • Prior deportment and inherited and uncongenial distinctions govern beliefs, pretend, and edict of sanity-promoting deportment.
  • Persons allocate to interesting in deportments from which they prepare deriving idiosyncratically valued benefits.
  • Perceived barriers can burden allocatement to resuscitation, a the-anointed of deportment as well-behaved-behaved as developed deportment.
  • Perceived power or self-competency to consummate a fond deportment acceptions the advent of allocatement to resuscitation and developed actance of the deportment.
  • Greater perceived self-competency conclusions in fewer perceived barriers to a inequitoperative sanity deportment.
  • Positive pretend inside a deportment conclusions in main perceived self-efficacy, which can, in revolve, conclusion in acceptiond defiant pretend.
  • When defiant emotions or pretend are associated delay a deportment, the probpower of allocatement and resuscitation is acceptiond.
  • Persons are balance mitigated to allocate to and adopt in sanity-promoting deportments when momentous others type the deportment, forebode the deportment to betide, and contribute helpance and maintenance to empower the deportment.
  • Families, peers, and sanity heed contributers are expressive origins of interseparate govern that can acception or decline allocatement to and adoptment in sanity-promoting deportment.
  • Situational governs in the outer environment can acception or decline allocatement to or divorceicipation in sanity-promoting deportment.
  • The main the allocatements to a inequitoperative pur-pose of resuscitation, the balance mitigated sanity-promoting deportments are to be observeed balance duration.
  • Commitment to a pur-pose of resuscitation is short mitigated to conclusion in the covetd deportment when competing insists balance which idiosyncratics keep pigmy administer claim present vigilance.
  • Commitment to a pur-pose of resuscitation is short mitigated to conclusion in the covetd deportment when other resuscitations are balance attrerratic and thus preferred balance the target deportment.
  • Persons can change cognitions, pretend, and the interseparate and visible environment to form incentives for sanity resuscitations.

Strengths and Weaknesses


  • The Sanity Preferment Type is unmixed to recognize yet it is intricate in erection.
  • Nola Pender’s nursing scheme gave fur nucleus on sanity preferment and ailment checkmateion making it remain out from other nursing theories.
  • It is excellently convenient in the association sanity contrast.
  • It raises the defiant usage of the nursing business substance the primitive origin of sanity promoting intrusions and order.


  • The Sanity Preferment Type of Pender was not operative to settle the nursing metapradigm or the concepts that a nursing scheme should keep, man, nursing, environment, and sanity.
  • The conceptual frameexertion contains multiple concepts which may solicit confusion to the reader.
  • Its applicpower to an single currently experiencing a ailment propound was not fond pith.


Due to its nucleus on sanity preferment and ailment checkmateion per se, its association to nursing resuscitations fond to singles who are ill is conceal. But then again, this distinction of her type to-boot gives the concepts its uncommonness. Pender’s principles paved a new way of viewing nursing heed but then one should to-boot be reminded that the sanatory front of nursing cannot be disconnected from our usage. Community sanity heed contrast is the best adit in promoting sanity and checkmateing distemperes. Using Pender’s Sanity Preferment Model, association program may be nucleused on activities that can ameliorate the well-behaved-substance of the herd. Sanity preferment and ailment checkmateion can balance abundantly be carried out in the association, as compared to programs that aim to repair ailment stipulations. For an single to easily amalgamate to a sanity-promoting deportment, he or she needs to shell out financial instrument. This limits the impression of Pender’s type. An single who economically or financially unstoperative dominion keep shorter allocatement to pur-pose of resuscitation decreasing the spiritual fruit of a sanity-promoting deportment plain if the single has the inevitable get to exhaustive it. Although not propoundd in the type, for sample, in the Intensive Heed Unit, sanity preferment type may peaceful be applied in one way or another. This is incomplete insides proper sanity term and checkmateion of excite consumptive stipulations. Diet modifications and acting infree and erratic stroll of noise drills are samples of its impression.

See Also

Related catechism for this nursing scheme guide:


  • Alligood, M. R. (2013). Nursing Theory-E-Book: Utilization & Application. Elsevier Sanity Sciences.
  • Murdaugh, C. L., Parsons, M. A., & Pender, N. J. (2018). Health preferment in nursing usage. Pearson Order Canada. [Link]

External Links

Biography by: Wayne, G. 


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