Nutrition

Nutrition

Definition
  • Nutrition is a state of well-being achieved by eating the right food in every meal and the proper utilization of the nutrients by the body.
  • Proper nutrition is important because:
    • It helps in the development of the brain, especially during the first years of the child’s life.
    • It speeds up the growth and development of the body including the formation of teeth and bones
    • It helps fight infection and diseases
    • It speeds up the recovery of a sick person
    • It makes people happy and productive
    • Proper nutrition is eating a balanced diet in every meal
Goal
  • To improve the nutritional status, productivity and quality of life of the population thru adoption of desirable dietary practices and healthy lifestyle
Objectives
  • Increase food and dietary energy intake of the average Filipino
  • Prevent nutritional deficiency diseases and nutrition-related chronic degenerative diseases
  • Promote a healthy well-balanced diet
  • Promote food safety
Balanced diet
  • Balanced diet is made up of a combination of the 3 basic groups eaten in correct amounts. The grouping serves as a guide in selecting and planning everyday meals for the family.
The Three (3) Basic Food Groups are:
  1. Body –building food which are rich in protein and needed by the body for:
    • normal growth and repair of worn-out body tissues
    • supplying additional energy
    • fighting infections
    • Examples of protein-rich food are: fish; pork; chicken; beef; cheese; butter; kidney beans; mongo; peanuts; bean curd; shrimp; clams
  2. Energy-giving food which are rich in carbohydrates and fats and needed by the body for:
    • providing enough energy to make the body strong
    • Examples of energy-giving food are: rice; corn; bread; cassava; sweet potato; banana; sugar cane; honey; lard; cooking oil; coconut milk; margarine; butter
  3. Body-regulating food which are rich in Vitamins and minerals and needed by the body for:
    • normal development of the eyes, skin, hair, bones, and teeth
    • increased protection against diseases
    • Examples of body-regulating food are: tisa; ripe papaya; mango; guava; yellow corn; banana; orange; squash; carrot
Low Fat Tips
  1. Eat at least 3 meals/day
  2. Eat more fruits, vegetables, grain and cereals e.g. rice, noodles and potato
  3. If you use butter or margarine, pat it on thinly
  4. Choose low fat substitute i.e. replace whole milk with skimmed milk, low fat cheese
  5. Become a label reader. Look for foods that have less than 5 g /100 g of product
  6. Eat less high fat snacks and take away potato chips, sausage rolls or breaded meats
  7. Cut all visible fat from meat; remove skin from chicken fat drippings and cream sauces
  8. Aim for thin palm-size serving of lean meat, poultry and fish/ meal
  9. Grill, bake, steam, stew, stir –fry and microwave, try not to fry
  10. Drink lots of water all day- it’s a food quencher
  11. Ambulate:
    1. Start by walking for 10 min.
    2. Build up to 30-40 min/day
    3. Go for 3-4 times / week of any exercise you enjoy
Filipino Food Pyramid
  • Drink lot- water, clear broth
  • Eat most – rice, root crops, corn, noodles, bread and cereals
  • Eat more – vegetables, green salads, fruits or juices
  • Eat some – fish, poultry, dry beans, nuts, eggs, lean meats, low fat dairy
  • Eat a little – fats, oils, sugar, salt
Important Vitamins and Minerals
 VITAMINS  FUNCTIONS
 Vitamin A  Maintain normal vision, skin health, bone and tooth growth  reproduction and immune function; prevents xerophthalmia.

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 Food sources: Breastmilk;poultry;eggs; liver;     meat;carrots;squash; papaya;mango;tiesa;     malunggay;kangkong; camotetops; ampalaya tops

 Thiamine  Help release energy from nutrients; support normal appetite  and nerve function, prevent beri-beri.
 Riboflavin  Helps release energy from nutrients, support skin health,     prevent deficiency manifested by cracks and redness at     corners of mouth; inflammation of the tongue and     dermatitis.
 Niacin  Help release energy from nutrients; support skin, nervous    and digestive system, prevents pellagra.
 Biotin  Help energy and amino acid metabolism; help in the     synthesis of fat glycogen.
 Pantothenic  Help in energy metabolism.
 Folic acid  Help in the formation of DNA and new blood cells including    red blood cells; prevent anemia and some amino acids.
 Vitamin B12  Help in the formation of the new cells; maintain nerve cells, assist in the metabolism of fatty acids and amino acids.
 Vitamin C  Help in the formation of protein, collagen, bone, teeth     cartilage, skin and scar tissue; facilitate in the absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract; involve in amino acid     metabolism; increase resistance to infection, prevent     scurvy.

 Food sources:
Guava;pomelo;lemon;orange; calamansi; tomato; cashew

 Vitamin D  Help in the mineralization of bones by enhancing absorption   of calcium
 Vitamin E  Strong anti-oxidant; help prevent arteriosclerosis; protect  neuromuscular system; important for normal immune     function.
 Vitamin K  Involve in the synthesis of blood clotting proteins and a     bone protein that regulates blood calcium level.
 MINERALS  FUNCTIONS
 Calcium  Mineralization of bones and teeth, regulator of many of the body’s biochemical processes, involve in blood clotting,     muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood pressure and immune defenses.
 Chloride  Maintain normal fluid and electrolyte balance.
 Chromium  Work with insulin and is required for release of energy from glucose.
 Copper  Necessary for absorption and use of iron in the formation of hemoglobin.
 Fluoride  Involve in the formation of bones and teeth; prevents tooth decay.
 Iodine  As part of the two thyroid hormones, iodine regulates     growth, physical and mental development and metabolic     rate. Aids in the development of the brain and body     especially in unborn babies

 Food sources:
Seaweeds;squids;shrimps;crabs; fermented     shrimp;mussels;snails; dried dilis; fish

 Iron  Essential in the formation of blood. It is involved in the     transport and storage of oxygen in the blood and  is a     co-factor bound to several non-hemo enzymes required for the proper functioning of cells.

 Food sources:
Pork; beef; chicken; liver and other internal organs; dried     dilis; shrimp; eggs; pechay; saluyot; alugbati

 Magnesium  Mineralization of bones and teeth, building of proteins,      normal muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission,     maintenance of teeth and functioning of immune system.
 Manganese  Facilitate many cell processes.
 Molybdenum  Facilitate many cell processes.
 Phosphorus  Mineralization of bones and teeth; part of every Cell; used    in energy transfer and maintenance of acidbase balance.
 Selenium  Work with vitamin E to protect body compound from     oxidation.
 Sodium  Maintain normal fluid and electrolyte balance, assists nerve impulse insulin.
 Sulfur  Integral part of vitamins, biotin and thiamine as well as the hormone.
 Zinc  Essential for normal growth, development reproduction and immunity.
Malnutrition
  • An abnormal condition of the body resulting from the lack or excess of one or more nutrients like protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.
Primary Cause: POVERTY
  1. Lack of money to buy food
    • Majority of the victims of malnutrition comes from families of farmers, fisherfolk, and laborers who cannot afford to buy nutritious foods.
  2. Lack of food supply
  3. Lack of information on proper nutrition and food values
Secondary Causes
  1. Early weaning of child and improper introduction of supplementary food
  2. Incomplete immunization of babies and children
  3. Bad eating habits
  4. Poor hygiene and environmental sanitation:
    1. lack of potable water
    2. lack of sanitary toilet
    3. poor waste disposal
Forms of Malnutrition
Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM)
  • Is a nutritional problem resulting from a prolonged inadequate intake of bodybuilding and/or energy-giving food in the diet.

Kinds:

  1. Marasmus
    • This child does not get the right amount and kind of energy food.
    • She/he:
      • is always hungry
      • has the face of an old man
      • is very thin
      • easily gets sick
      • looks weak
      • THIS CHILD IS JUST SKIN AND BONES!
  2. Kwashiorkor

    • This child does not get enough body-building food, although she/he may be getting enough energy.
    • She/he:
      • has swollen face, hands, and feet
      • easily gets sick
      • has dry, thin, pale hair
      • has sores on the skin
      • has thin upper arms
      • looks sad
      • has dry skin
      • is underweight
      • THIS CHILD IS SKIN, BONES, AND WATER!
Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD)
  • A condition in which the level of Vitamin A in the body is low.

Causes:

  • Not eating enough foods rich in vitamin A. E.g. yellow vegetables and yellow fruits
  • Lack of fat or oil in the diet which help the body absorb Vitamin A.
  • poor absorption or rapid utilization of Vitamin A during illness

Eye Signs

  • night blindness (early stage); total blindness (later stage)
  • bitot’s spot (foamy soapsuds-like spots on white part of the eye)
  • dry, hazy and rough appearing cornea
  • crater-like defect on cornea
  • softened cornea; sometimes bulging

Other Manifestations

  • increased cases of childhood sickness, and death and decreased resistance to infection
  • susceptibility to childhood malnutrition and infection (measles, diarrhea and pneumonia)

Prevention

  • eating foods rich in Vitamin A, such as liver, eggs, milk, crab meat, cheese, dilis, malunggay, gabi leaves, kamote tops, kangkong, alugbati, saluyot, carrots, squash, ripe mango, including fats and oils
  • breastfeeding the child
  • immunizing the child
  • taking correct dose of Vitamin A capsules as prescribed

Risk Factors

  • VAD is most common in children suffering from PEM and other infectious diseases. Bottle-fed infants are also at risk of VAD especially if the milk formula used is not fortified with Vitamin A.
  • Common among preschoolers and infants (FNRI)

Schedule for Receiving Vitamin A Supplement to Infants, Preschoolers and Mothers

 Schedule  Infants (6-11 mos)  Preschoolers (12-83 mos)  Post Partum Mother
 Give 1 Dose  100,000 IU  200,000 IU  200,000 IU
Within one month
 Give after 6 months
High risk Condition
Present
 100,000 IU  200,000 IU  After delivery of      each child only

Schedule for Treatment of Viamin A Deficiency

 Schedule  Infants (6-11 mos.)  Preschoolers (12-83 mos.)
 Give Today  100,000 IU  200,000 IU
 Give Tomorrow  100,000 IU  200,000 IU
 Give After 2 Weeks  100,000 IU  200,000 IU
Anemia
  • A condition characterized by the lack of iron in the body resulting in paleness.

Sign/Symptoms

  • Paleness of the eyelids, inner cheeks, palms and nailbeds; frequent dizziness and easy fatigability

Common cause

  • Inadequate intake of food rich in iron; can also be caused by blood loss during menstruation, pregnancy and parasitic infections.

Prevention

  • Eating iron-rich food such as liver and other internal organs; green leafy vegetables; and foods rich in Vitamin C

Prevention of Iron Deficiency

 Recommended Iron Requirements  Dosage
 Infants ( 6-12 months)  0.7 mg. Daily
 Children ( 12-59 months)  1 mg daily

Treatment of Iron Deficiency

 Dosage
 Children 0-59 month  3-6 mg. /kg. Body wt./day
Goiter
  • Enlargement of thyroid gland due to lack of iodine in the body.
  • Common in areas where the iodine content in the soil, water and food are deficient.
  • Effect of Iodine deficiency to fetus: may be born mentally and physically retarded.
  • Goiter can be prevented by:
    • daily intake of food rich in iodine
    • use of iodized salt

Iodine Supplementation

 Dosage
 Children 0-59 months    ( in endemic areas)  Iodine capsules (200mg)      potassium iodate in oil orally     once a year.
Checking the Nutritional Status Weight
  1. Weight is a very important indicator of a person’s nutritional status. It is measured in relation to either AGE or HEIGHT. Normally, a well nourished child gains weight as she/he grows older.
  2. On the other hand, a malnourished child either decreases in weight or maintains his/her previous weight.
  3. The nutritional status of a person can also be checked by looking for specific signs and symptoms of the different forms of nutritional deficiencies.
Important
  1. Weigh the child in minimal clothing, with no shoes, clogs or slippers on; and hands and pockets free of objects.
  2. The same type of scale should be used for subsequent weighing.
  3. Observe the proper maintenance of the weighing scale.
  4. Do not use a bathroom scale to avoid inaccurate readings of weight.
  • *bring the malnourished child together with the parents to the health center for proper nutritional advice and treatment.
  • *visit the malnourished child regularly and monitor his/her weight.
  • *advise parents and the whole community about better nutrition and proper feeding especially of infants, children and sick persons.
Nutritional Guidelines
  1. Eat a variety of food everyday.
  2. Breastfeed infants exclusively from birth to 4-6 months, and then, give appropriate foods while continuing breastfeeding.
  3. Maintain children’s normal growth through proper diet and monitor their growth regularly.
  4. Consume fish, lean meat, poultry or dried beans.
  5. Eat more vegetables, fruits, and root crops.
  6. Eat foods cooked in edible/cooking oil daily.
  7. Consume milk, milk products or other calcium-rich foods such as small fish and dark green leafy vegetables everyday. Use iodized salt, but avoid excessive intake of salty foods.
  8. Use iodized salt, avoid excessive intake of salty foods
  9. Eat clean and safe food.
  10. For a healthy lifestyle and good nutrition, exercise regularly, do not smoke, avoid drinking alcoholic beverages.
Aims and Rationale of Each of the Guidelines
  • Guideline No. 1 is intended to give the message that no single food provides all the nutrients the body needs. Choosing different kinds of foods from all food groups is the first step to obtain a well balanced diet. This will help correct the common practice of confining of choice to a few kinds of foods, resulting in an unbalanced diet.
  • Guidelines No.2 is entitled to promote exclusive breastfeeding from birth to 4-6 months and to encourage the continuance of breastfeeding for as long as two years or longer. This is to ensure a complete and safe food for the newborn and the growing infant besides imparting the other benefits of breastfeeding. The guideline also strongly advocates the giving of appropriate complementary food in addition to breast milk once the infant is ready for solid foods at 6 months. Malnutrition most commonly occurs between the ages of 6 months to 2 years, therefore there is a need to pay close attention to feeding the child properly during this very critical period.
  • Guideline No. 3 gives advise on proper feeding of children. In addition, the guideline promotes regular weighing to monitor the growth of children, as it is a simple way to assess nutritional status.
  • Guidelines No. 4, 5, 6 and 7 are intended to correct the deficiencies in the current dietary pattern of Filipinos. Including fish, lean meat, poultry and dried beans, which will provide good quality protein and dietary energy, as well as iron and zinc, key nutrients lacking in the diet of Filipinos as a whole. Eating more vegetables, fruits and root crops will supply the much needed vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber that are deficient in our diet. In addition, they provide defense against chronic degenerative diseases. Including foods cooked in edible oils will provide additional dietary energy as a partial remedy to calorie deficiency of the average Filipino. Including milk and other calcium-rich foods in the diet will serve to supply not only calcium for healthy bones but to provide high quality protein and other nutrients for growth.
  • Guideline No. 8 promotes the use of iodized salt to prevent iodine deficiency, which is a major cause of mental and physical underdevelopment in the country. At the same time, the guideline warns against excessive intake of salty foods as a hedge against hypertension, particularly among high-risk individuals.
  • Guideline No.9 is intended to prevent food-borne diseases. It explains the various sources of contamination of our food and simple ways to prevent it from occurring.
  • Finally, Guideline No. 10 promotes a healthy lifestyle through regular exercise, abstinence from smoking and avoiding consumption. If alcohol is consumed, it must be done in moderation. All these lifestyle practices are directly or indirectly related to good nutrition.
Nutrients in Food
  • Nutrients are chemical substances present in the foods that keep the body healthy, supply materials for growth and repair of tissues, and provide energy for work and physical activities.
  • The major nutrients include the macronutrients, namely; proteins, carbohydrates and fats; the micronutrients, namely vitamins such as A, D, E and K, the B complex vitamins and C and minerals such as calcium, iron, iodine, zinc, fluoride and water.