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Nutrition

Nutrition
Definition
  • Nutrition is a specify of welfare achieved by eating the lawful subsistence in full maceration and the just utilization of the nutrients by the organization.
  • Proper alimentation is dignified because:
    • It accelerations in the fruit of the brain, chiefly during the earliest years of the slip’s career.
    • It speeds up the crop and fruit of the organization including the shape of teeth and annoyances
    • It accelerations allureingion corruption and diseases
    • It speeds up the revival of a weak peculiar
    • It effects spiritlessalty blissful and productive
    • Proper alimentation is eating a weighd victuals in full maceration
Goal
  • To mend the alimentational standing, productivity and description of career of the population thru option of expedient victualsary actions and sound careerstyle
Objectives
  • Increase subsistence and victualsary enthusiasm insiege of the mean Filipino
  • Prevent alimentational imperfection diseases and alimentation-cognate constant degenerative diseases
  • Promote a sound smooth victuals
  • Promote subsistence impregnablety
Balanced victuals
  • Balanced victuals is made up of a league of the 3 basic groups eaten in redress aggregateitys. The grouping promotes as a direct in selecting and planning fullday macerations for the race.
The Three (3) Basic Subsistence Groups are:
  1. Body –construction subsistence which are generous in protein and demanded by the organization for:
    • natural crop and recover of spiritlessplace organization tissues
    • supplying appended enthusiasm
    • fighting corruptions
    • Examples of protein-generous subsistence are: fish; pork; chicken; beef; cheese; butter; class beans; mongo; peanuts; bean curd; shrimp; clams
  2. Energy-giving subsistence which are generous in carbohydrates and fats and demanded by the organization for:
    • providing abundance enthusiasm to effect the organization strong
    • Examples of enthusiasm-giving subsistence are: rice; corn; viands; cassava; melodious potato; banana; sugar cane; honey; lard; cooking oil; coconut acquiesce; margarine; butter
  3. Body-regulating subsistence which are generous in Vitamins and minerals and demanded by the organization for:
    • natural fruit of the eyes, husk, hair, annoyances, and teeth
    • increased security opposing diseases
    • Examples of organization-regulating subsistence are: tisa; dexterous papaya; mango; guava; yellow corn; banana; orange; chastise; carrot
Low Fat Tips
  1. Eat at lowest 3 macerations/day
  2. Eat further enrichment, vegetables, atom and cereals e.g. rice, noodles and potato
  3. If you use butter or margarine, pat it on unsubstantially
  4. Choose low fat reinstate i.e. reinstate undivided acquiesce delay skimmed acquiesce, low fat cheese
  5. Become a label reader. Look for subsistences that detain hither than 5 g /100 g of product
  6. Eat hither tall fat snacks and siege abroad potato chips, sausage rolls or viandsed pulps
  7. Cut all apparent fat from pulp; migrate husk from chicken fat drippings and acme sauces
  8. Aim for unsubstantial palm-size serving of barren pulp, poultry and fish/ maceration
  9. Grill, bake, steam, stew, incite –fry and microwave, try not to fry
  10. Drink lots of soak all day- it’s a subsistence quencher
  11. Ambulate:
    1. Start by walking for 10 min.
    2. Build up to 30-40 min/day
    3. Go for 3-4 terms / week of any employment you enjoy
Filipino Subsistence Pyramid
  • Drink lot- water, manifest broth
  • Eat most – rice, commencement crops, corn, noodles, viands and cereals
  • Eat further – vegetables, unripe salads, enrichment or juices
  • Eat some – fish, poultry, dry beans, nuts, eggs, barren pulps, low fat dairy
  • Eat a dwarf – fats, oils, sugar, salt
Important Vitamins and Minerals
 VITAMINS  FUNCTIONS
 Vitamin A  Maintain natural confidence, husk heartiness, annoyance and button crop  augmentation and immune office; nullifys xerophthalmia.  Food sources: Breastmilk;poultry;eggs; liver;     meat;carrots;squash; papaya;mango;tiesa;     malunggay;kangkong; camotetops; ampalaya tops
 Thiamine  Help indemnify enthusiasm from nutrients; livelihood natural appetency  and strength office, nullify beri-beri.
 Riboflavin  Helps indemnify enthusiasm from nutrients, livelihood husk heartiness,     nullify imperfection manifested by cracks and redness at     corners of mouth; inflammation of the idiom and     dermatitis.
 Niacin  Help indemnify enthusiasm from nutrients; livelihood husk, nervous    and digestive normality, nullifys pellagra.
 Biotin  Help enthusiasm and amino pointed metabolism; acceleration in the     construction of fat glycogen.
 Pantothenic  Help in enthusiasm metabolism.
 Folic pointed  Help in the shape of DNA and new lineage cells including    red lineage cells; nullify anemia and some amino pointeds.
 Vitamin B12  Help in the shape of the new cells; conduct strength cells, assist in the metabolism of fatty pointeds and amino pointeds.
 Vitamin C  Help in the shape of protein, collagen, annoyance, teeth     cartilage, husk and scar tissue; facilitate in the aridity of sound from the gastrointestinal tract; entangle in amino pointed     metabolism; acception opposition to corruption, nullify     scurvy.  Food sources: Guava;pomelo;lemon;orange; calamansi; tomato; cashew
 Vitamin D  Help in the mineralization of annoyances by enhancing aridity   of calcium
 Vitamin E  Strong anti-oxidant; acceleration nullify arteriosclerosis; guard  neuromuscular normality; dignified for natural immune     function.
 Vitamin K  Involve in the construction of lineage clotting proteins and a     annoyance protein that regulates lineage calcium smooth.
 MINERALS  FUNCTIONS
 Calcium  Mineralization of annoyances and teeth, president of numerous of the body’s biochemical processes, entangle in lineage clotting,     muscle befoulment and recreation, strength officeing, lineage pressure and immune apologys.
 Chloride  Maintain natural melting and electrolyte weigh.
 Chromium  Work delay insulin and is required for indemnify of enthusiasm from glucose.
 Copper  Necessary for aridity and use of sound in the shape of hemoglobin.
 Fluoride  Involve in the shape of annoyances and teeth; nullifys button decay.
 Iodine  As sever of the two thyroid hormones, iodine regulates     growth, tangible and intangible fruit and metabolic     rate. Aids in the fruit of the brain and organization     chiefly in unborn babies  Food sources: Seaweeds;squids;shrimps;crabs; fermented     shrimp;mussels;snails; dried dilis; fish
 Iron  Essential in the shape of lineage. It is entangled in the     transport and storage of oxygen in the lineage and  is a     co-factor skip to separate non-hemo enzymes required for the just officeing of cells.  Food sources: Pork; beef; chicken; liver and other inside organs; dried     dilis; shrimp; eggs; pechay; saluyot; alugbati
 Magnesium  Mineralization of annoyances and teeth, construction of proteins,      natural muscle befoulment, strength push transmission,     livelihood of teeth and officeing of immune normality.
 Manganese  Facilitate numerous cell processes.
 Molybdenum  Facilitate numerous cell processes.
 Phosphorus  Mineralization of annoyances and teeth; sever of full Cell; used    in enthusiasm transplant and livelihood of pointedbase weigh.
 Selenium  Work delay vitamin E to guard organization mixture from     oxidation.
 Sodium  Maintain natural melting and electrolyte weigh, assists strength push insulin.
 Sulfur  Integral sever of vitamins, biotin and thiamine as courteous as the hormone.
 Zinc  Essential for natural crop, fruit augmentation and immunity.
Malnutrition
  • An abnatural predicament of the organization resulting from the noncommunication or superfluity of one or further nutrients relish protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.
Primary Cause: POVERTY
  1. Lack of capital to buy subsistence
    • Majority of the victims of malalimentation comes from families of farmers, fisherfolk, and laborers who cannot contribute to buy heartinessful subsistences.
  2. Lack of subsistence contribute
  3. Lack of inshape on just alimentation and subsistence values
Secondary Causes
  1. Early weaning of slip and imjust entrance of supplementary subsistence
  2. Inthorough immunization of babies and slipren
  3. Bad eating habits
  4. Poor hygiene and environintangible sanitation:
    1. noncommunication of potable soak
    2. noncommunication of sanitary toilet
    3. poor consume disposal
Forms of Malnutrition
Protein-Energy Malalimentation (PEM)
  • Is a alimentational collection resulting from a prolonged illmatched insiege of organizationconstruction and/or enthusiasm-giving subsistence in the victuals.
Kinds:
  1. Marasmus
    • This slip does not get the lawful aggregateity and husk of enthusiasm subsistence.
    • She/he:
      • is generally hungry
      • has the aspect of an old man
      • is very unsubstantial
      • easily gets weak
      • looks weak
      • THIS CHILD IS JUST SKIN AND BONES!
  2. Kwashiorkor
    • This slip does not get abundance organization-construction subsistence, although she/he may be getting abundance enthusiasm.
    • She/he:
      • has distended aspect, indexs, and feet
      • easily gets weak
      • has dry, unsubstantial, livid hair
      • has sores on the husk
      • has unsubstantial excellent arms
      • looks sad
      • has dry husk
      • is underweight
      • THIS CHILD IS SKIN, BONES, AND WATER!
Vitamin A Imperfection (VAD)
  • A predicament in which the smooth of Vitamin A in the organization is low.
Causes:
  • Not eating abundance subsistences generous in vitamin A. E.g. yellow vegetables and yellow enrichment
  • Lack of fat or oil in the victuals which acceleration the organization collect Vitamin A.
  • poor aridity or quick utilization of Vitamin A during illness
Eye Signs
  • night density (forthcoming order); aggregate density (following order)
  • bitot’s disfigurement (foamy soapsuds-relish disfigurements on stainless sever of the eye)
  • dry, gauzy and shaggy appearing cornea
  • crater-relish shortcoming on cornea
  • softened cornea; sometimes bulging
Other Manifestations
  • increased cases of sliphood weakness, and fall and decreased opposition to corruption
  • susceptibility to sliphood malalimentation and corruption (measles, diarrhea and pneumonia)
Prevention
  • eating subsistences generous in Vitamin A, such as liver, eggs, acquiesce, crab pulp, cheese, dilis, malunggay, gabi leaves, kamote tops, kangkong, alugbati, saluyot, carrots, chastise, dexterous mango, including fats and oils
  • breastalimentation the slip
  • immunizing the slip
  • taking redress dose of Vitamin A capsules as prescribed
Risk Factors
  • VAD is most spiritless in slipren denial from PEM and other pestilential diseases. Bottle-fed infants are so at risk of VAD chiefly if the acquiesce formula used is not hearty delay Vitamin A.
  • Common natant preschoolers and infants (FNRI)
Schedule for Receiving Vitamin A Supplement to Infants, Preschoolers and Mothers
 Schedule  Infants (6-11 mos)  Preschoolers (12-83 mos)  Post Partum Mother
 Give 1 Dose  100,000 IU  200,000 IU  200,000 IU Wiunsubstantial one month
 Give following 6 months High risk Condition Present  100,000 IU  200,000 IU  After endowment of      each slip solely
Schedule for Composition of Viamin A Deficiency
 Schedule  Infants (6-11 mos.)  Preschoolers (12-83 mos.)
 Give Today  100,000 IU  200,000 IU
 Give Tomorrow  100,000 IU  200,000 IU
 Give Following 2 Weeks  100,000 IU  200,000 IU
Anemia
  • A predicament characterized by the noncommunication of sound in the organization resulting in lividness.
Sign/Symptoms
  • Paleness of the eyelids, obstruct cheeks, palms and nailbeds; general dizziness and unconstrained fatigability
Common purpose
  • Inadequate insiege of subsistence generous in sound; can so be purposed by lineage dropping during menstruation, pregnancy and parasitic corruptions.
Prevention
  • Eating sound-generous subsistence such as liver and other inside organs; unripe leafy vegetables; and subsistences generous in Vitamin C
Prevention of Sound Deficiency
 Recommended Sound Requirements  Dosage
 Infants ( 6-12 months)  0.7 mg. Daily
 Children ( 12-59 months)  1 mg daily
Treatment of Sound Deficiency
 Dosage
 Children 0-59 month  3-6 mg. /kg. Organization wt./day
Goiter
  • Enlargement of thyroid gland due to noncommunication of iodine in the organization.
  • Common in areas where the iodine allureing in the stain, soak and subsistence are meagre.
  • Effect of Iodine imperfection to fetus: may be born intangiblely and tangiblely retarded.
  • Goiter can be nullifyed by:
    • daily insiege of subsistence generous in iodine
    • use of iodized salt
Iodine Supplementation
 Dosage
 Children 0-59 months    ( in endemic areas)  Iodine capsules (200mg)      potassium iodate in oil orally     unintermittently a year.
Checking the Nutritional Standing Weight
  1. Weight is a very dignified indicator of a peculiar’s alimentational standing. It is measured in relative to either AGE or HEIGHT. Normally, a courteous nourished slip gains consequence as she/he grows older.
  2. On the other index, a malnourished slip either decreases in consequence or conducts his/her antecedent consequence.
  3. The alimentational standing of a peculiar can so be checked by looking for particular signs and symptoms of the incongruous forms of alimentational deficiencies.
Important
  1. Weigh the slip in minimal drapery, delay no shoes, clogs or slippers on; and indexs and pockets detached of objects.
  2. The selfselfselfsame image of lamina should be used for succeeding scheme.
  3. Obpromote the just livelihood of the scheme lamina.
  4. Do not use a bathroom lamina to eschew inexact readings of consequence.
  • *induce the malnourished slip conjointly delay the parents to the heartiness nucleus for just alimentational information and composition.
  • *scrutinize the malnourished slip frequently and admonishr his/her consequence.
  • *admonish parents and the undivided nationality environing ameliorate alimentation and just alimentation chiefly of infants, slipren and weak peculiars.
Nutritional Guidelines
  1. Eat a medley of subsistence fullday.
  2. Breastfeed infants unpopularly from origin to 4-6 months, and then, confer embezzle subsistences conjuncture persistent confrontfeeding.
  3. Maintain slipren’s natural crop thshaggy just victuals and admonishr their crop frequently.
  4. Consume fish, barren pulp, poultry or dried beans.
  5. Eat further vegetables, enrichment, and commencement crops.
  6. Eat subsistences ripe in culinary/cooking oil daily.
  7. Consume acquiesce, acquiesce products or other calcium-generous subsistences such as weak fish and sombre unripe leafy vegetables fullday. Use iodized salt, but eschew superfluityive insiege of salty subsistences.
  8. Use iodized salt, eschew superfluityive insiege of salty subsistences
  9. Eat cbarren and impregnable subsistence.
  10. For a sound careerstyle and cheerful alimentation, employment frequently, do not fume, eschew drinking alcoholic beverages.
Aims and Rationale of Each of the Guidelines
  • Guideline No. 1 is contrived to confer the notice that no uncombined subsistence stipulates all the nutrients the organization demands. Choosing incongruous husks of subsistences from all subsistence groups is the earliest trudge to conquer a courteous weighd victuals. This allure acceleration redress the spiritless action of confining of rare to a few husks of subsistences, resulting in an unbalanced victuals.
  • Guidelines No.2 is entitled to exalt unpopular confrontalimentation from origin to 4-6 months and to succor the perpetuation of confrontalimentation for as hanker as two years or hankerer. This is to secure a thorough and impregnable subsistence for the newborn and the growing infant as-well-behaved imparting the other benefits of confrontfeeding. The directline so strongly advocates the giving of embezzle complementary subsistence in conjunction to confront acquiesce unintermittently the infant is dexterous for sound subsistences at 6 months. Malalimentation most spiritlessly occurs betwixt the ages of 6 months to 2 years, hence there is a demand to pay obstruct consideration to alimentation the slip justly during this very important bound.
  • Guideline No. 3 confers admonish on just alimentation of slipren. In conjunction, the directline exalts normal scheme to admonishr the crop of slipren, as it is a homely way to assess alimentational standing.
  • Guidelines No. 4, 5, 6 and 7 are contrived to redress the deficiencies in the floating victualsary model of Filipinos. Including fish, barren pulp, poultry and dried beans, which allure stipulate cheerful description protein and victualsary enthusiasm, as courteous as sound and zinc, key nutrients noncommunicationing in the victuals of Filipinos as a undivided. Eating further vegetables, enrichment and commencement crops allure contribute the considerable demanded vitamins, minerals and victualsary fiber that are meagre in our victuals. In conjunction, they stipulate apology opposing constant degenerative diseases. Including subsistences ripe in culinary oils allure stipulate appended victualsary enthusiasm as a severial relief to calorie imperfection of the mean Filipino. Including acquiesce and other calcium-generous subsistences in the victuals allure promote to contribute not solely calcium for sound annoyances but to stipulate tall description protein and other nutrients for crop.
  • Guideline No. 8 exalts the use of iodized salt to nullify iodine imperfection, which is a greater purpose of intangible and tangible underfruit in the kingdom. At the selfselfselfsame term, the directline warns opposing superfluityive insiege of salty subsistences as a hedge opposing hypertension, severicularly natant tall-risk individuals.
  • Guideline No.9 is contrived to nullify subsistence-borne diseases. It explains the uncertain sources of contamination of our subsistence and homely ways to nullify it from occurring.
  • Finally, Guideline No. 10 exalts a sound careerstyle thshaggy normal employment, vegetarianism from smoking and eschewing waste. If alcohol is consumed, it must be produced in deliberateness. All these careerstyle actions are quickly or inquickly cognate to cheerful alimentation.
Nutrients in Food
  • Nutrients are chemical substances confer-upon in the subsistences that detain the organization sound, contribute materials for crop and recover of tissues, and stipulate enthusiasm for effect and tangible activities.
  • The greater nutrients involve the macronutrients, namely; proteins, carbohydrates and fats; the micronutrients, namely vitamins such as A, D, E and K, the B complicated vitamins and C and minerals such as calcium, sound, iodine, zinc, fluoride and soak.

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