Placenta Previa Practice Exam

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Text Mode

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1. Which of the following is the most common kind of placental adherence seen in pregnant women?

A. Accreta
B. Placenta previa
C. Percreta
D. Increta

2. A 39-year-old at 37 weeks gestation is admitted to the hospital with complaints of vaginal bleeding following the use of cocaine 1 hour earlier. Which complication is most likely causing the client’s complaint of vaginal bleeding?

A. Placenta previa
B. Abruptio placentae
C. Ectopic pregnancy
D. Spontaneous abortion

3. The nurse is caring for a client in labor. The external fetal monitor shows a pattern of variable decelerations in fetal heart rate. What should the nurse do first?

A. Change the client’s position.
B. Prepare for emergency cesarean section.
C. Administer oxygen.
D. Check for placenta previa.

4. A pregnant client is diagnosed with partial placenta previa. In explaining the diagnosis, the nurse tells the client that the usual treatment for partial placenta previa is which of the following?

A. Activity limited to bed rest
B. Platelet infusion
C. Immediate cesarean delivery
D. Labor induction with oxytocin

5. A nurse assists in the vaginal delivery of a newborn infant. After the delivery, the nurse observes the umbilical cord lengthen and a spurt of blood from the vagina. The nurse documents these observations as signs of:

A. Hematoma
B. Placenta previa
C. Uterine atony
D. Placental separation

6. A nurse in the postpartum unit is caring for a client who has just delivered a newborn infant following a pregnancy with placenta previa. The nurse reviews the plan of care and prepares to monitor the client for which of the following risks associated with placenta previa?

A. Disseminated intravascular coagulation
B. Chronic hypertension
C. Infection
D. Hemorrhage

7. A maternity nurse is preparing for the admission of a client in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy that is experiencing vaginal bleeding and has a suspected diagnosis of placenta previa. The nurse reviews the physician’s orders and would question which order?

A. Prepare the client for an ultrasound
B. Obtain equipment for external electronic fetal heart monitoring
C. Obtain equipment for a manual pelvic examination
D. Prepare to draw a Hgb and Hct blood sample

8. Maureen in her third trimester arrives at the emergency room with painless vaginal bleeding. Which of the following conditions is suspected?

a. Placenta previa
b. Abruptio placentae
c. Premature labor
d. Sexually transmitted disease

9. Tyra experienced painless vaginal bleeding has just been diagnosed as having a placenta previa. Which of the following procedures is usually performed to diagnose placenta previa?

a. Amniocentesis
b. Digital or speculum examination
c. External fetal monitoring
d. Ultrasound

10. The common normal site of nidation/implantation in the uterus is:

A. Upper uterine portion
B. Mid-uterine area
C. Lower uterine segment
D. Lower cervical segment

Answers and Rationale

1. Answer: A. Accreta. Placenta accreta is the most common kind of placental adherence seen in pregnant women and is characterized by slight penetration of myometrium. In placenta previa, the placenta does not embed correctly and results in what is known as a low-lying placenta. It can be marginal, partial, or complete in how it covers the cervical os, and it increases the patient’s risk for painless vaginal bleeding during the pregnancy and/or delivery process. Placenta percreta leads to perforation of the uterus and is the most serious and invasive of all types of accrete. Placenta increta leads to deep penetration of the myometrium.

2. Answer: B. Abruptio placentae. The major maternal adverse reactions from cocaine use in pregnancy include spontaneous abortion first, not third, trimester abortion and abruptio placentae.

3. Answer: A. Change the client’s position. Variable decelerations in fetal heart rate are an ominous sign, indicating compression of the umbilical cord. Changing the client’s position from supine to side-lying may immediately correct the problem. An emergency cesarean section is necessary only if other measures, such as changing position and amnioinfusion with sterile saline, prove unsuccessful. Administering oxygen may be helpful, but the priority is to change the woman’s position and relieve cord compression.

4. Answer: A. Activity limited to bed rest. Treatment of partial placenta previa includes bed rest, hydration, and careful monitoring of the client’s bleeding.

5. Answer: D. Placental separation. As the placenta separates, it settles downward into the lower uterine segment. The umbilical cord lengthens, and a sudden trickle or spurt of blood appears.

6. Answer: D. Hemorrhage. Because the placenta is implanted in the lower uterine segment, which does not contain the same intertwining musculature as the fundus of the uterus, this site is more prone to bleeding.

7. Answer: C. Obtain equipment for a manual pelvic examination. Manual pelvic examinations are contraindicated when vaginal bleeding is apparent in the 3rd trimester until a diagnosis is made and placental previa is ruled out. Digital examination of the cervix can lead to maternal and fetal hemorrhage. A diagnosis of placenta previa is made by ultrasound. The H/H levels are monitored, and external electronic fetal heart rate monitoring is initiated. External fetal monitoring is crucial in evaluating the fetus that is at risk for severe hypoxia.

8. Answer: A. Placenta previa. Placenta previa with painless vaginal bleeding.

9. Answer: D. Ultrasound. Rationale: Once the mother and the fetus are stabilized, ultrasound evaluation of the placenta should be done to determine the cause of the bleeding. Amniocentesis is contraindicated in placenta previa. A digital or speculum examination shouldn’t be done as this may lead to severe bleeding or hemorrhage. External fetal monitoring won’t detect a placenta previa, although it will detect fetal distress, which may result from blood loss or placenta separation.

10. Answer: A. Upper uterine portion. The embryo’s normal nidation site is the upper portion of the uterus. If the implantation is in the lower segment, this is an abnormal condition called placentaprevia.