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Sister Callista Roy: Adaptation Model of Nursing

Get to apprehend Sister Callista Roy’s biography and Congeniality Pattern of Nursing in this con-aggravate guide for nursing theories.

Biography of Callista Roy

Sister Callista L. Roy (born October 14, 1939) is a nursing theorist, vocation, and composer. She is apprehendn for her groundbreaking remainder in creating the Congeniality Pattern of Nursing.

Education and Career

Callista Roy accepted her Bachelor of Arts Greater in Nursing from Mount Saint Mary’s College in Los Angeles in 1963 and her master’s measure in nursing from the University of California in 1966. After earning her nursing measures, Roy began her counsel in sociology, receiving twain a master’s measure in sociology in 1973 and a doctorate measure in sociology in 1977 from the University of California. During her date in remaindering toward her master’s measure, Roy was canvassd in a seminar after a suitableness Dorothy E. Johnson to unravel a conceptual pattern for nursing. Roy remaindered as a pediatric encourage and noticed a exalted resiliency of manifestation and their dominion to modify in counterkeep-apart to greater natural and subjective changes. Impressed by this modifyation, Roy remaindered towards an mismisappropriate conceptual frameremainder for nursing. She unraveled the basic concepts of the pattern suitableness she was a furrow tyro at the University of California from 1964 to 1966. In 1968, she began operationalizing her pattern when Mount Saint Mary’s College adopted the modifyation frameremainder as the wise rudiments of the nursing curriculum. Roy was an helpmate confessor and chairidiosyncratic of the Department of Nursing at Mount Saint Mary’s College until 1982 and was advanced to the rank of confessor in 1983 at twain Mount Saint Mary’s College and the University of Portland. She helped inaugurate and taught in a summer master’s program at the University of Portland.
Sr. Callista Roy. Photo: Boston College
Sr. Callista Roy. Photo: Boston College
She was a Robert Wood Johnson postdoctoral companion at the University of California, San Francisco from 1983 to 1985 as a clinical nurse savant in neuroscience. It was during this date  she conducted investigation on nursing interventions for sensitive re-establishment in division injuries and on the bias of nursing patterns on clinical resolution making. In 1987 to bestow, Roy began the newly caused posture of sojourner encourage theorist at Boston College Teach of Nursing where she teaches doctoral, master’s, and underfurrow tyros. In 1991, she founded the Boston Naturalized Congeniality Investigation in Nursing Sodality (BBARNS), which would posterior be renamed the Roy Congeniality Association. Roy’s other savantly remainder involves conceptualizing and measuring coping and unraveling the wise foundation for the modifyation pattern and for the epistemology of nursing. Roy belongs to the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet.

Adaptation Pattern of Nursing

Sr. Callista Roy’s Congeniality Pattern of Nursing was unraveled by Sister Callista Roy in 1976. The conspicuous nursing assumption grant to teach or elucidate the anticipation of nursing. In her assumption, Roy’s pattern sees the idiosyncratical as a set of interrelated methods who strives to binder pit betwixt these different stimuli. Congeniality Pattern of Nursing is discussed exalt adown.


The Roy Congeniality Pattern (3rd Edition)
The Roy Congeniality Pattern (3rd Edition)
Sr. Callista Roy has muddy vulgarations, including books and journal doctrines, on nursing assumption and other vocational topics. Her remainders possess been translated into abundant tongue all aggravate the globe. Roy and her colleagues at Roy Congeniality Association, has discernmentd and synthesized the foremost 350 investigation projects published in English naturalized on her modifyation pattern. Her most far-famed remainder is on the Roy modifyation pattern of nursing.

Published remainders

  1. Roy, S. C. (2014). Generating interaccessible rank assumption: From illustration to exercise. New York, NY: Springer.
  2. Roy, S. C., & Harrington, A. (2013). Roy modifyation pattern-naturalized investigation: Global object. Generating Interaccessible rank assumption: From illustration to exercise (pp. 355-365). New York, NY: Springer.
  3. Roy, S. C. (2013). From US encourage theorist’s object of idiosyncratic and amiconducive of sodality: Dr. Callista Roy (p. 3), in Cristina Monforte, RN, MSN, PhD (Ed.), Catalunya: Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (UIC).
  4. Roy, S. C., Barone, S. H. (2013). Pedagogic materials for generating interaccessible rank theories: Illustration for exercise. In S.C Roy (ed.). Generating Interaccessible Rank Theory: From Illustration to Practice. New York, NY: Springer.
  5. Roy, S. C. (2011). Investigation naturalized on the Roy modifyation pattern: Last 25 years. Nursing Comprehension Quarterly, 24(4), 312-320.
  6. Roy, S. C. (2011). Extending the Roy Congeniality Pattern to Converge Changing Global Needs. Nursing Comprehension Quarterly, 24(4), 345-351.
  7. Senesac, P. M., Roy, S. C. (2010). Sister Callista Roy’s Congeniality Model, In M. Parker and M. Smith (Ed.), Nursing Theories and Nursing Exercise (ed., pp. 40 page manuscript). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.
  8. Jones, D. A., Roy, S. C., K. A. (2013). Marjory Gordon Buttress Legend. NANDA- Interdiplomatic Journal of Nursing Terminologies and Classification, 21(2), 2.
  9. McCurry, M.S., Hunter Revell, S., & Roy, C. (2010). Conversance for the amiconducive of the idiosyncratical and sodality: Linking philosophy, disciplinary designs, assumption, and exercise. Nursing Philosophy, 11(1), 42-52.
  10. Roy, C. (2009). The Roy Congeniality Model, 3rd edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Health.
  11. Barone, S., Roy, C., & Frederickson, K. (2008). Instruments used in Roy Congeniality Pattern naturalized investigation: Review, discernment and exalt directions. Nursing Comprehension Quarterly. 21(4), 353-362.
  12. Roy, C. (2007). Update from the future: Thinking of Theorist Callista Roy. Nursing Comprehension Quarterly, 20(2), 113-116.
  13. Roy, Sr. C. & Jones, D. (Editors). (2007). Nursing apprehendledge unravelment and clinical exercise. New York, NY: Springer.
  14. Jones, D.A., Roy, C.A., & Avant, K. (2010). Marjory Gordon, buttress myth. NADA- Interdiplomatic Journal of Nursing Terminologies and Classifications, 21(2), 80-81.
  15. Roy, C. (2010). Rate and the Roy Congeniality Model. (M. Ito, Trans.). Journal of Japan Sodality of Nursing Diagnosis, 15(1), 35-41.
  16. Roy, S.C., & Dowlatshahi, M. (2010). Forward. In Nursing Concepts and Nursing Theories Glossary (pp. 2-3). Tehran, Iran: Medical Sciences Publishing Center.
  17. Roy, S. C., Zhan, L. (2010). Sister Callista Roy’s Nursing Congeniality Pattern and its Applications. In M. Parker & M. Smith (Eds.), Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice, 3rd edition, (pp. 167-181). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.
  18. Roy, C. (2010). Nursing exercise and investigation naturalized on the Roy Congeniality Model. Bulletin of St. Mary’s College, 5-13.
  19. Roy, C. (2010). Thoughts from a theorist. Roy Congeniality Review, 13(1), 5.
  20. Roy, C.(2009). Forward. In J. Cutliffe, K. Hyrkas, & H.P. Mckenna (Eds.), Nursing Models: Contact to Practice. London. UK: Quay Books.
  21. Roy, C., & Solodiuk, J. (2009). Global nursing parley nucleused on apprehendledge for amiconducive of idiosyncratics and sodality after a suitableness reflections from Ph.D. tyros. Interdiplomatic Netremainder for Doctoral Counsel in Nursing (INDEN) Newsletter, 8(1), 5-6.
  22. Roy, C., Whetsell, M.V., & Frederickson, K. (2009). The Roy Congeniality Pattern and investigation: Global perspective. Nursing Comprehension Quarterly, 22(3), 209-211.
  23. Roy, C. (2009). Thoughts from a theorist. Nursing Comprehension Quarterly, 12(1), 4.
  24. Roy, C. (2009). Rate and the Roy Congeniality Model. The Japanese Nursing Journal, 29(11), 5-7.
  25. Roy, C. (2008). Adversity and assumption: The expansive draw. Nursing Comprehension Quarterly. 21(2), 138-139.
  26. O’Connor, A. & Roy, C. (2008). Electric dominion fix emissions and vulgar bloom. American Journal of Nursing. 108(2), 62-70.
  27. Magee, T. & Roy, C. (2008). Predicting teach age bearing problems: The role of forthcoming childhood waste factors. Pediatric Nursing, 34(1), 37-43.
  28. Willis, D., Grace, P., & Roy, C. (2008). A accessible unifying nucleus for the discipline: Facilitating amelioration, purport, exquisite, peculiarity of animation and departure. Advances in Nursing Science. (31)1. online only:
  29. Chayput, P. & Roy, C. (2007). Psychometric testing of the Thai declarement of coping and modifyion waying scale—short conceive (TCAPS-SF). Thai Journal of Nursing Council, 22(3), 29-39.
  30. Roy, C. (2007). Update from the future: Thinking of Theorist Callista Roy. Nursing Comprehension Quarterly, 20(2), 113-116.
  31. Roy, C. (2007). The Roy Congeniality Model: Historical and Philosoph-ical Foundations. In Maria Elisa Moreno, et al. (Eds.) Applicacion Del Pattern Adaptacion en el Ciclo Vital Humano, 2nd Edition. Chia, Columbia: Universidad de La Sabana.
  32. Roy, C. (2007). Fundasupernatural History and Philosophy of the Roy Congeniality Model. In Guitierrez, M. dC (Ed.) Adaptacion y Cuidado en el ser Humano: Una Vision de Enfermeria. Bogota: Editorial El Manual Moderno, Universidad de la Sabana, 1-12.
  33. Roy, C. & Lindendoll, N. (2006). Defining interdiplomatic singleness on mentorship in doctoral counsel. Journal of Investigation in Nursing, 11(4), 345-353.
  34. Morgillo-Freeman, S. & Roy, C. (2005). Sensitive bearing therapy and the Roy Congeniality Model: A discourse of presumptive integration. In S.M. Freeman & A. Freeman (Eds.), Sensitive Bearing Therapy in Nursing Practice. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 3-27.
  35. Roy, C. & Gray, M. (2005). Role of the supervisor/mentor. In Ketefian, S. & McKenna, H.P. (Eds.). Doctoral Counsel in Nursing Interdiplomatic Perspectives. New York: Routledge.
  36. Roy, C. (2003). Reflections on Nursing Investigation and the Roy Congeniality Model. Igaju-syoin Japanese Journal, 36(1), 7-11.
  37. Whittemore, R. & Roy, C. (2002). Adapting to Diabetes Mellitus: A Assumption Synthesis. Nursing Comprehension Quarterly, 15(4), 311-317.

Awards and Honors

Sr. Callista Roy has accepted muddy palm due to her remainder and oblation to the nursing vocation. In 2007, Roy has been named a Living Legend by the American Academy of Nursing and the Massachusetts Registered Nurses Association. Roy is as-polite a component of Sigma Theta Tau, and she accepted the National Founder’s Award for Excellence in cherishing Authoritative Nursing Standards in 1981. Among her achievements involve an Gratuitous Doctorate of Humane Letters from Alverno College in 1984, gratuitous doctorates from Eastern Michigan University (1985) and St. Joseph’s College in deep (1999). She as-polite accepted the American Journal of Nursing Book of the Year Award for Essentials of the Roy Congeniality Model. Here are over of her awards & palm:
  • 2013 – Distinguished Furrow Award, Bishop Conaty/Our Lady of Loretto High School
  • 2013 – Gratuitous Doctoral Degree, Holy Family University
  • 2013 – Alumni Award for Authoritative Achievement, UCLA
  • 2013 – Excellence in Nursing, The University of Antioquia, Medellin Colombia
  • 2011 – Nursing Comprehension Quarterly Special Issue Honoring the remainder of Callista Roy, Vol. 24, Num. 4, Oct. 2011
  • 2011 – Faculty Senior Scientist Poster Exemplar Award, Yvonne L. Munn Center for Nursing Investigation and the Nursing Investigation Expo Committee, Massachusetts General Hospital
  • 2011 – The Sigma Mentor Award, Sigma Theta Tau Interdiplomatic Alpha Chi Chapter
  • 2010 – University of Southern Alabama Draw Gallery of Theorist, University of Alabama
  • 2010 – Inducted to Encourage Researcher Hall of Fame, Inaugural Class, Sigma Theta Tau International, Honor Sodality of Nursing
  • 2010 – “Sixty Who possess Made a Difference”, UCLA Teach of Nursing, 6th Anniversary
  • 2010 – Inductee, Sigma Theta Tau Interdiplomatic Encourage Researcher Hall of Fame
  • 2007 – American Academy of Nursing Buttress Myth Award

Callista Roy’s Congeniality Pattern of Nursing

The Adaptation Pattern of Nursing is a conspicuous nursing assumption aiming to teach or elucidate the anticipation of nursing comprehension. In her assumption, Sister Callista Roy’s pattern sees the idiosyncratical as a set of interrelated methods who strives to binder a pit betwixt different stimuli. The Roy Congeniality Pattern was foremost bestowed in the scholarship in an expression published in Nursing Outlook in 1970 entitled “Adaptation: A Conceptual Frameremainder for Nursing.” In the corresponding year, Roy’s Congeniality Pattern of Nursing was modifyed in Mount St. Mary’s Teach in Los Angeles, California. Roy’s pattern was conceived when nursing theorist Dorothy Johnson canvassd her tyros during a seminar to unravel conceptual patterns of nursing. Johnson’s nursing pattern was the belief for the unravelment of Roy’s Congeniality Model. Roy’s pattern incorporated concepts from Adaptation-level Assumption of Perception from note American physiological psychologist Harry Helson, Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s Method Model, and Anatol Rapoport’s method determination. First, revolve the concept of a method as applied to an idiosyncratical. Roy conceptualizes the idiosyncratic in a holistic perspective. Personal aspects of competency act contemporaneously to conceive a unified estate. Additionally, as buttress methods, idiosyncratics are in firm interoperation after a suitableness their environments. Betwixt the method and the environment occurs an substitute of counsel, stuff, and temper. Characteristics of a method involve inputs, outputs, manages, and feedback.


Scientific Assumptions

  • Systems of stuff and temper speed to conspicuous levels of complicated wilful-organization.
  • Consciousness and purport are constructive of idiosyncratic and environment integration.
  • Awareness of wilful and environment is corruptd in thinking and tenderness.
  • Humans by their resolutions are dependent for the integration of supernatural wayes.
  • Thinking and tenderness accessible anthropological operation.
  • System kinsmenhips involve solution, defence, and cherishing of harmony.
  • Persons and the globe possess vulgar patterns and total kinsmenhips.
  • Persons and environment transformations are caused in anthropological perception.
  • Integration of anthropological and environment purports remainders in modifyation.

Philosophical Assumptions

  • Persons possess interchangeconducive kinsmenhips after a suitableness the globe and God.
  • Human purport is corruptd in the omega top mob of the globe.
  • God is intimately biblical in the dissonance of fconducive and is the vulgar fortune of fable.
  • Persons use anthropological supernatural abilities of awareness, verily, and faith.
  • Persons are dependent for the wayes of deriving, supported, and transforming the globe.

Major Concepts of the Congeniality Model

The subjoined are the greater concepts of Callista Roy’s Congeniality Pattern including the determination of the nursing metaparadigm as elucidated by the assumption.


“Human methods possess thinking and tenderness capacities, corruptd in perception and purport, by which they regulate piively to changes in the environment and, in depend, desire the environment.”

Based on Roy, anthropologicals are holistic estates that are in firm interoperation after a suitableness their environment. Humans use a method of modifyation, twain indispensconducive and assumed, to converge to the environsupernatural stimuli they proof. Anthropological methods can be idiosyncraticals or groups, such as families, organizations, and the all global association.


“The provisions, qualification and biass embracing and desireing the unravelment and bearing of idiosyncratics or groups, after a suitableness detail revolveation of the interchangeableity of idiosyncratic and bloom resources that involves focal, contextual and residual stimuli.”

The environment is elucidated as provisions, qualification, and biass that desire the unravelment and bearing of anthropologicals as an modifyive method. The environment is a excitation or input that requires a idiosyncratic to modify. These stimuli can be fixed or disclaiming. Roy categorized these stimuli as focal, contextual, and residual. Focal stimuli are that which confronts the anthropological method and requires the most circumspection. Contextual stimuli are characterized as the cessation of the stimuli that bestow after a suitableness the focal stimuli and add to its pi. Residual stimuli are the affixed environsupernatural factors bestow after a suitablenessin the site, but whose pi is unclear. This can involve foregoing proof after a suitableness incontrovertible stimuli.


“Health is not immsingleness from the inevitdominion of departure, distemper, woe, and pressure, but the dominion to strive after a suitableness them in a suitconducive way.”

Health is elucidated as the declare where anthropologicals can frequently modify to stimuli. Because distemper is a keep-akeep-apart of animation, bloom is the remainder of a way where bloom and distemper can accompany. If a anthropological can live to modify holistically, they conquer be conducive to binder bloom to thrust rectitude and singleness after a suitablenessin themselves. If they cannot modify consistently, the parity of the idiosyncratic can be desireed disclaimingly.


“[The design of nursing is] the encouragement of modifyation for idiosyncraticals and groups in each of the indecent modifyive orders, thus contributing to bloom, peculiarity of animation, and departure after a suitableness order.”

In Congeniality Model, encourages are facilitators of modifyation. They assess the unrepining’s bearings for modifyation, advance fixed modifyation by enhancing environment interactions and aiding unrepinings recoil fixedly to stimuli. Nurses elucidate inable coping meanss and ultimately carry to meliorate fruits.


Adaptation is the “way and fruit whereby thinking and tenderness idiosyncratics as idiosyncraticals or in groups use aware awareness and exquisite to cause anthropological and environsupernatural integration.”

Internal Processes


The manager subsystem is a idiosyncratic’s physiological coping means. It’s the body’s strive to modify via habit of our corporeal wayes, including neurochemical, and endocrine methods.


The cognator subsystem is a idiosyncratic’s supernatural coping means. A idiosyncratic uses his brain to strive via wilful-concept, harmony, and role business modifyive orders.

Four Adaptive Modes

Physiological-Physical Mode

Physical and chemical wayes complicated in the business and activities of buttress organisms. These are the express wayes put in noise by the manager subsystem. The basic need of this order is composed of the needs helpmated after a suitableness oxygenation, feeding, end, earnestness and cessation, and defence. The complicated wayes of this order are helpmated after a suitableness the purports, watery and electrolytes, neurologic business, and endocrine business.

Self-Concept Group Unity Mode

In this order, the design of coping is to possess a purport of singleness, purport the purposefulness in the globe, as polite as a purport of unity parity. This involves body image and wilful-ideals.

Role Business Mode

This order nucleuses on the pristine, resultant and tertiary roles that a idiosyncratic occupies in sodality, and apprehending where he or she stands as a component of sodality.

Interdependence Mode

This order nucleuses on attaining mental parity through the giving and receiving of charity, reference and estimate. This is achieved after a suitableness piive message and kinsmen.

Levels of Adaptation

Integrated Process

The different orders and subsystems converge the needs of the environment. These are usually stconducive wayes (e.g., alert, immaterial realization, fortunate kinsmenhip).

Compensatory Process

The cognator and manager are canvassd by the needs of the environment, but are remaindering to converge the needs (e.g., grief, starting after a suitableness a new job, reparatory alert).

Compromised Process

The orders and subsystems are not adequately convergeing the environsupernatural canvass (e.g., hypoxia, unresolved dropping, sharp kinsmenhips).

Six-Step Nursing Process

A encourage’s role in the Congeniality Pattern is to manage stimuli by removing, decreasing, increasing or altering stimuli so that the unrepining
  1. Assess the bearings manifested from the indecent modifyive orders.
  2. Assess the stimuli, categorize them as focal, contextual, or residual.
  3. Make a declarement or nursing idiosyncraticity of the idiosyncratic’s modifyive declare.
  4. Set a design to advance modifyation.
  5. Implement interventions aimed at managing the stimuli.
  6. Evaluate whether the modifyive design has been met.


As one of the weaknesses of the assumption that contact of it is date-consuming, contact of the pattern to necessity sites requiring swift operation is perplexing to consummate. The idiosyncratical ability possess consummated the all modifyation way after a suitablenessout the advantage of having a consummate rate for powerful nursing interventions. Adaptive countercompetency may alter in complete idiosyncratical and may choose a longer date compared to others. Thus, the couple of manage of encourages may be compulsory by the date of the free of the unrepining. Unapprove Levine, although the perishing tackled on modifyation, Roy gave fur nucleus on the all modifyive method itself. Each concept was linked after a suitableness the coping meanss of complete idiosyncratical in the way of modifying. The encourages’ roles when an idiosyncratical bestows an inable counterkeep-apart during his or her modifyation way were not clforthcoming discussed. The deep top of the concept was to advance modifyation but none were declared on how to neutralize and counteract maladaptation.

Strengths of the Roy’s Congeniality Model

  • The Congeniality Pattern of Callista Roy suggests the bias of multiple causes in a site, which is a force when trade after a suitableness multi-faceted anthropological estates.
  • The continuity of concepts in Roy’s pattern follows logically. In the bestowation of each of the key concepts, there is the recurring purpose of modifyation to binder parity. Complete concept was operationally elucidated.
  • The concepts of Roy’s pattern are declared in proportionately weak stipulations.
  • A greater force of the pattern is that it guides encourages to use comment and interviewing skills in doing an idiosyncraticalized rate of each idiosyncratic.The concepts of Roy’s pattern are applicconducive after a suitablenessin abundant exercise settings of nursing.


  • Painstaking contact of the pattern requires symbolical input of date and attempt.
  • Roy’s pattern has abundant elements, methods, structures and multiple concepts.

See Also

You may as-polite approve the subjoined nursing theories con-aggravate guides:


  1. Wills M. Evelyn, McEwen Melanie (2002). Theoretical Foundation for Nursing. Philadelphia. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  2. Andrew, H.A. and Roy, C. (1991). Overobject of the physiologic order. In George, J. (Ed.). Nursing theories: the corrupt for vocational nursing exercise. Norwalk, Connecticut: Appleton & Lange.
  3. Roy, C. and McLeod, D. (1981) The assumption of the idiosyncratic as an modifyive method. In George, J. (Ed.). Nursing theories: the corrupt for vocational nursing exercise. Norwalk, Connecticut: Appleton & Lange.
  4. Roy, C. and Adrews, H. A. (1999). The Roy modifyation pattern (2nd ed). In McEwen, M. and Wills, E. (Ed.). Theoretical foundation for nursing. USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

External Links

With oblations by Wayne, G., Ramirez, Q., Vera, M. 


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